UC IPM Online UC ANR home page UC IPM home page


SKIP navigation


Research and IPM

Grants Programs: Projects Database

Project description

Evaluation of Inoculative Releases of Goniozus legneri for Navel Orangeworm Control in Almonds. (96BC002)
Program UC IPM competitive research grants program
K.M. Daane, Biological Control, UC Berkeley
Host/habitat Almonds; Tree Crops
Pest Navel Orangeworm
Discipline Entomology
Goniozus legneri
Biological Controls
Start year (duration)  1996 (Three Years)
Objectives Determine the effect of Goniozus legneri, and navel orangeworm nut infestation levels.

Determine the effect of incomplete winter sanitation on population levels of G. legneri and consequent navel orangeworm parasitism and nut infestation levels.

Use of insectary-reared natural enemies for insect control has increased in popularity. We evaluated the release of a parasite (Goniozus legneri) for control of navel orangeworm (NOW), a moth pest of almonds. Previously, we showed that commercial release programs had variable results, from a 0 to 45% reduction in NOW. Some variation was attributed to poor release methodology and we now recommend release of adult, rather than immature, parasites to reduce parasite mortality. We also confirmed that leaving overwintered nuts on the tree did not consistently improve the ratio of G. legneri to NOW the following season. Overwintering sanitation is strongly recommended! In 1998, we focused on (1) establishing release guidelines that place viable G. legneri in the orchard at the most effective time and (2) studies of G. legneri biology with respect to overwintering survival.

To improve release effectiveness, the release methodology can be manipulated. In 1998, we released adult G. legneri (marked with "mouse IgG") and found good movement throughout the tree canopy and orchard, with G. legneri moving up to 12 trees from the release point. We conclude that G. legneri can be released at only two to three locations per acre, thereby reducing labor costs. G. legneri biology was studied to determine optimal release periods. Results showed that G. legneri adults do not oviposit at temperatures <65 F, suggesting postharvest releases have little effect. Further, G. legneri larvae did not develop at <65 F (temperature cabinet study) and did not survive ambient winter temperatures in Fresno County (1997-1998). Therefore, parasite numbers, especially immature stages, will drop dramatically during the Central Valley winters.

Top of page

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright 2016 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   web template revised: August 29, 2016 Contact webmaster.