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Development of a means to contrast dispenser technologies rapidly.
Determine how orchard and environmental variables influence the success of the mating disruption programs.
Sprayable formulations developed by Consep and 3M were shown to suppress traps more than 80 days following a single application in small plot trials. A relatively flat rate response was observed (5 to 150 grams per acre) relative to trap suppression. Efficacy trials demonstrated that while codling moth traps could be shut down, damage could occur as mated females may have moved from adjacent undisrupted sites. In an 18-orchard trial, low rates of sprayable in conjunction with insecticides provided enhanced suppression for moderate populations. Applications by fixed-wing plane or ground air-blast sprayers suppressed traps equally.
Protocols were developed using an electroantennogram (EAG) to estimate product performance of sprayable pheromone residues under light-exposed and shaded conditions. The EAG is in essence a biological sensor to detect active pheromone emissions. Relative stability of the shaded product measured by the EAG probably explains the relative success of sprayables in dense canopied walnut plots. However, light-exposed capsules no longer released detectable pheromone by 7 to 11 days, depending on light quality.
The sprayable pheromone technologies performed less well than expected from 2001. Codling moth traps were consistently shut down in all trials, yet damage was still observed in one walnut location (Locke). However, trap suppression was easily obtained in most locations with damage suppression generally following suite. The DA lures provided effective monitoring early in the season until ca. mid-July in the pheromone treated plots. After this point, the DA lures failed in some orchards to detect a late season flight that was indicated by pheromone traps in untreated controls. These results will need to be repeated.
Initial efforts with aerial applications of sprayable formulations looked positive with equal trap suppression of sterile moths in areas treated with fixed-wing plane or ground air-blast sprayers.
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