How to Manage Pests
UC Pest Management Guidelines
Symptoms first appear as stunting and reduced tillering early in the growing season. Later, infected plants prematurely form white heads that lack grain. Roots and crowns are darkened. The presence of a layer of dark brown or black fungal mycelium underneath the lowest leaf sheaths distinguishes take-all from common root rot.
The fungus survives on crop residue and on roots of certain grass weeds, including bentgrass, quackgrass, and some species of brome. Under conditions of high soil moisture, the fungus spreads to adjacent plants by root contact. Infection is favored by cool weather. Take-all is more severe in plants grown on alkaline soil or soil deficient in nutrients.
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Small Grains