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UC Pest Management Guidelines


Pecan

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pecans to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 2/07, updated 12/08)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact
to natural enemies6
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects) M H H I7 moderate
dimethoate 1B broad (insects) H H H I long
endosulfan (Thionex) 2A broad (insects) L M M II8 moderate
imidacloprid (Admire)-soil 4A narrow (sucking insects) L I9
H = high
M = moderate
L = low
= no information
1  Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB,PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
8 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
9 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pecan
UC ANR Publication 3456
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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