How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Pistachio

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pistachios to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 2/07, updated 2/09)

In this Guideline

Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity3
(affected groups)
Predatory mites4 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact
to natural enemies6
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 III moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I-III9 long
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H 10 L IV long
carbaryl (Sevin) 4F 1A broad (insects, mites) I long
carbaryl (Sevin) 80S 1A broad (insects, mites) L/H H H I long
carbaryl (Sevin) XLR Plus 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L III long
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, scales, L M11 L/M III short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, scales,) L M11 L/M III moderate12
sulfur narrow (mites and citrus thrips) L/H L H IV short
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.  
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pistachio
UC ANR Publication 3461

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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