How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Pistachios to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 10/14, updated 10/14)

In this Guideline:

Common name (example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2
(affected groups)
Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact
to natural enemies6
acephate (97Up) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 8 M/H III moderate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Dipel) 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I-III9 long
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects, beetles) L H 10 L IV long
carbaryl (Sevin 4F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H14 I long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H H I13 long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) III
etoxazole (Zeal Miticide 1) 10C narrow (mites) M L L IV short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A narrow (sucking insects) I short
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites) H L L IV short
flubendiamide(Belt) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H II short to moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II with Zeon) 3A broad (beetles, caterpillars) H H H I9 moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3A broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (sucking insects) L H10 L IV short
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M11 M III short
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M11 M/H III moderate12
spirodiclofen (Envidor 2SC) 23 narrow (mites) M L L I short
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (mealybugs, aphids) L L L short
sulfur narrow (mites and citrus thrips) L/H M/L H IV short
H = high     M = moderate     L = low     — = no information  
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
9 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10 Kills lady beetles.
11 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after.
12 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
13 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
14 If rate is 1 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is II.



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UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pistachio
UC ANR Publication 3461

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M.L. and S.H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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