How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides to Natural Enemies and Pollinators

(Reviewed 12/09 , updated 5/10 )

In this Guideline:

Common name (trade name and formulation) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I7 moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acephate(Orthene) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I moderate
acetamiprid (Assail WP) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 9 III moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin F) 1A broad (insects, mites) M/H H H I10 long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) L H L I11 long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) IV
cryolite (Kryocide) un narrow (foliage chewing insects) L L L IV short
cyromazine (Trigard WP) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III short
dinotefuran (Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I short
dimethoate (E) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
endosulfan (Thionex EC, WP) 2A broad (insects, mites) L M M II12 short
esfenvalerate (Asana XL) 3 broad (insect, mites) H M H I13 moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L III moderate
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L I14 long
imidacloprid (Provado F) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M IV short
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid F) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
permethrin (Ambush W, Pounce EC, WP) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L15 L L III short
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L III short
pyrethrin (PyGanic EC) 3 broad (insects) M M III short
pyriproxyfen (Knack) 7C narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L H16 L IV short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) M M17 L/M III moderate18
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) M M17 L/M III moderate17
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (psyllid, mite, whitefly)
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphid, psyllid, whitefly)
thiamethoxam (Actara) 4A narrow (sucking insects) 19 M I moderate
H = high     M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
10 If rate is 1 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is II.
11 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
12 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
14 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
15 Rating depends on rate used.
16 Kills lady beetles.
17 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5 to 7 days after, especially for Dipteran predators such as syrphid flies).
18 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
19 May cause increase in spider mite populations.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Peppers
UC ANR Publication 3460

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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