How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


2013 Fungicide Efficacy and Treatment Timing

(Reviewed 11/12 , updated 10/13 )

In this Guideline:


Fungicide Resistance risk (FRAC#)1 Scab
Protectant Eradicant
Bayleton** high (3) ---- ----
Inspire Super medium (3/9) ++++ ++++
Flint2 high (11)3 ++++ ++++
Fontelis high (7) ++++ ++
Luna Sensation5 Medium (7/11) ++++ ++
Pristine medium (7/11) ++++ ----
Procure4 high (3) ++++ ++++
Rally5 high (3) ++++ ++
Rubigan/Vintage4 high (3) ++++ ++++
Scala high (9)3 +++ +++
Sovran high (11)3 +++ +++
Syllit medium (M7) +++ +++
Tebuzol high (3) +++ +++
Topsin-M/T-Methyl/Incognito3 high (1)3 +++ +++
Vangard high (9)3 +++ +++
Ph-D medium (19) + +
Captan6 low (M4) +++ ----
Dithane/Manzate/Penncozeb6 low (M3) +++ ----
Ziram6 low (M3) ++ ----
Copper6 low (M1) ++7 ----
Lime sulfur6,8 low (M2) ---- ++++8
Sulfur7 low (M2) ++ ----
Bactericide/ Biological Resistance risk Fire blight11 Phytotoxicity Growth
Contact Systemic
Ag Streptomycin/Agri-Mycin /Firewall high ++++ +++ +/- ----
MycoShield/FireLine10 (FlameOut**) high +++ +++ +/- ----
Copper7 low (M1) +++ ---- + ----
Captan6 low (M4) ++ ---- ---- ----
Dithane/Manzate/Penncozeb6 low (M3) ++ ---- ---- ----
Kasumin* high ++++ ++++ +/- ----
BlightBan low ++ ---- +/-
Bloomtime Bio low +++ ---- +/- ----
Blossom Protect low +++ ---- +/- ----
Actigard* low ---- ---- ---- +?11
Apogee low ---- ---- ---- ++11
Rating: ++++ = excellent and consistent, +++ = good and reliable, ++ = moderate and variable, + = limited and/or erratic, +/- = minimal and often ineffective, ---- = ineffective.
* Registration pending in California
**Not registered, label withdrawn or inactive
*** - Postharvest fruit registrations include: TBZ, Alumni, Penbotec, Scholar, and Scholar MP.
1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions (for more information, see Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode of action Group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode of action Group number; for fungicides with other Group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to fungicide with a different mode of action Group number.
2 Label withdrawn on pears because of resistance development.
3 To reduce the risk of resistance development start treatments with a fungicide with a multi-site mode of action; rotate or mix fungicides with different mode of action FRAC numbers for subsequent applications, use labeled rates (preferably the upper range), and limit the total number of applications/season.
4 On pear, use only before white bud and after full bloom.
5 Labeled on apple only in California.
6 These materials show some efficacy and should be used in mixtures with antibiotics as a component of resistance management programs. Captan is registered on apples, whereas Dithane is registered on apples and pears.
7 Copper, though effective for scab and blight control, causes fruit scarring.
8 "Burns out" scab twig lesions when applied at delayed dormant and disrupts pseudothecial (or ascostroma) development when applied to leaves in fall. CAUTION: LIME SULFUR IS INCOMPATIBLE WITH MOST OTHER PESTICIDES WHEN USED AFTER BUDBREAK.CHECK BEFORE USE.
9 In-season application eradicates powdery mildew.
10 Labeled on pear but not on apple.
11Growth regulators such as prohexadione calcium (Apogee) can be used in an integrated approach to reduce host susceptibility but do not have antibiotic activity against fire blight. Thus, Apogee was not included in the fire blight activity ratings.


Note: Not all indicated timings might be necessary for disease control.
Disease Fall Delayed dormant Green tip /White bud Pink bud Petal Fall/ Cover Sprays
Scab1 ++2 ++2 +++ +++ +++
Powdery mildew3 ---- ---- ---- +++ +++
Fire blight ---- ---- ---- +++ +++4
Rating: +++ = most effective, ++ = moderately effective, + = least effective, and ---- = ineffective
1 Protection of early tissue is important. Additional applications should be made according to infection periods as determined by the Mills table.
2 Disruption of pseudothecial (or ascostroma) development (fall) and inactivation of overwintering twig lesions (delayed dormant) occurs; effects of these treatments on disease control uncertain.
3 Early application is most effective; added treatments are made if mildew continues.
4 Start management program at the beginning of bloom and continue through bloom including "rat-tail" bloom throughout spring. Several models are available for forecasting infection periods and treatment timing. Models include: Maryblyt, Cougar Blight, etc.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Pear
UC ANR Publication 3455

General Information

Adaskaveg, J. E., B. A. Holtz, T. J. Michailides, and W. D. Gubler. 2013. Efficacy and Timing of Fungicides, Bactericides, and Biologicals for Deciduous Tree Fruit, Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops (PDF)

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Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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