How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Nectarines to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 6/10, updated 5/12, pesticides updated 9/15)

In this Guideline:

Common name
(Example trade name)
Mode of
(affected groups2
Predatory Mites3 General Predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites) M L M/H I12  
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 7 III moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid (Leverage) 3A + 4A
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L IV short
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (scales) L H8 L IV long
buprofezin+flubendiamide 16 + 28 narrow L H9 L I long
carbaryl (Sevin XLR Plus) 1A broad (insects, mites) M H M III long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) L L L IV short
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diflubenzuron (Dimilin) 15 L H L IV
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I moderate
fenbutatin oxide (Vendex) 12B narrow (pest mites) L L L IV short
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L L/M I short
hexythiazox (Onager, Savey) 10A narrow (mites) L L L IV short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars, plant bugs) L L L III moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
permethrin (Pounce) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L L L III short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21 broad (insects, mites) H M III short
pyriproxyfen (Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H8 L IV long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales) M M10 L/M III moderate11
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales) M M10 L/M III short to moderate
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L I
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H L H IV short
H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers ("un" = unknown or uncertain mode of action) are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to the native strain of the western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
8 Kills lady beetles.
9 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
10 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
11 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.
12 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.



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UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Nectarine
UC ANR Publication 3451

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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