How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Apples to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 8/06, updated 1/11, pesticides updated 10/15)

In this Guideline:

Common name (Example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) H L M/H I7 moderate to predatory mites and affected insects
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 9 III moderate
acequinocyl (Kanemite) 20B narrow (mites) L IV
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenazate (Acramite) un narrow (spider mites) L L L III short
buprofezin (Centaur) 16 narrow (sucking insects) L H9 L IV long
chlorantraniliprole (Altacor) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I11 moderate
clofentezine (Apollo) 10A narrow (mites) M L L IV short
clothianidin (Belay) 4A M/H M/H I
Cydia pomenella granulovirus (Cyd-X) narrow (codling moth) none none none IV none
diazinon 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate to long
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3A broad (insect, mites) H M H I7 moderate
etoxazole (Zeal) 10B narrow (mites) H9 L IV short
fenpropathrin (Danitol) 3A broad (insects, mites) H H H I
fenpyroximate (Fujimite) 21A narrow (mites and some insects) H L L IV short
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L L/M I short
hexythiazox (Savey) 10A narrow (mites) M L L IV short to moderate
imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4A narrow (sucking insects) H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22A narrow (caterpillars) L L III moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (insects, mites) M M M IV short
kaolin clay (Surround) broad (insects, mites) M M IV long
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3A broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I14 moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied) insects) L L L III short
petroleum oil broad (exposed insects, mites) L15 L L III short
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
pyridaben (Nexter) 21A broad (insect, mites) M/H M III short
pyriproxyfen (Esteem, Seize) 7C narrow (scale, beetles) L H16 L IV long
spinetoram (Delegate) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) L/M M17 L/M III moderate18
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (caterpillars, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M17 L/M III short to moderate17
spirodiclofen (Envidor) 23 narrow (mites) L I
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids) L L L short
sulfur narrow (mites) L/H M/L H IV short
H = high     M = moderate    L = low    — = no information     un = unknown or uncertain mode of action
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee).
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 Does not kill adults but sterilizes females.
10 If rate is 1.5 lb a.i. or less and dilution not greater than 1:19, rating is II.
11 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
12 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
14 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
15 Rating depends on rate used.
16 Kills lady beetles.
17 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
18 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Apple
UC ANR Publication 3432

General Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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