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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Lettuce

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Lettuce to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 8/07, updated 10/10)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name and formulation) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
abamectin (Agri-Mek EC) 6 moderate (mites, leafminers) M L M/H I7 long to predatory mitesand affected insects
acephate (Orthene) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I intermediate
acetamiprid (Assail) 4A moderate (sucking insects, larvae) 8 9 III moderate
azadirachtin (Neemix) 18B broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
bifenthrin (Brigade) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I-III10 long
carbaryl (Sevin) bait 1A narrow (cutworms, armyworms) L L L IV short
cyfluthrin (Baythroid XL) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
cypermethrin (Ammo) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I11 moderate
cyromazine (Trigard WSP) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III short
diazinon (WP, EC) 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon (G) 1B narrow (soil insects) L L L IV short
dimethoate (E) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
dinotefuran (Venom) 4A narrow (sucking insects) L L short
disulfoton (Di-Syston EC) 1B broad (insect, mites) H H H II12
emamectin benzoate (Proclaim) 6 narrow (caterpillars) III
esfenvalerate (Asana) 3 broad (insect, mites) H M H I13 moderate
flonicamid (Beleaf) 9C narrow (aphids) L L L IV short
flubendiamide (Synapse WG) 28 L L L/M I short
imidacloprid (Admire) 4A narrow (sucking insects, beet armyworms, cutworms) L L I14
imidacloprid (Provado F) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M M H II short to moderate
indoxacarb (Avaunt) 22 narrow (caterpillars) L L L III moderate
insecticidal soap (M-Pede) broad (exposed insects, mites) M M M IV short
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I15 moderate
methomyl (Lannate SP, LV) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid F) 18A narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox-R) 1B narrow (sucking insects, mites) H H H III moderate
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pymetrozine (Fulfill) 9B narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L/H M16 L/M III moderate17
spinosad (Success, Entrust) 5 narrow (caterpillars, whiteflies, aphids, leafminers) L M16 L/M III moderate16
spiromesifen (Oberon SC) 23 narrow (whiteflies)
spirotetramat (Movento) 23 narrow (aphids, whiteflies) L L L short
thiamethoxam (Platinum) 4A narrow (sucking insects) M I moderate
thiodicarb (Larvin) 1A narrow (caterpillars) L L L III
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most Groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific Groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.
7 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
8 May cause flare-ups of spider mite populations.
9 Acute toxicity low but reproductive capacity is impacted.
10  If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
11 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
12 If rate is 0.5 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.
13 If rate is 0.025 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
14 If rate is 0.1 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
15 If rate is 0.02 lb a.i./acre, rating is II.
16 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly larva, beetles) when sprayed and 5 to 7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.
17  Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Lettuce
UC ANR Publication 3450
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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