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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Lettuce

Foxglove Aphid

Scientific Name: Aulacorthum solani

(Reviewed 8/07, updated 10/09)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST

Foxglove aphid is usually light green with darker green spots at the base of the cornicles but has several color forms, ranging from green to orange to pink. Some of the wingless aphids have many black markings on the top of the abdomen as well. The winged adults are browner in color than the wingless forms, but also have various black markings.

Foxglove aphid is a pest of lettuce in California's Central Coast, although it may also occur on other crops. Winged aphids are nearly indistinguishable in the field from another pest of lettuce, the lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribis-nigri). These two aphids, however, can be distinguished from green peach aphid, which has prominent, converging antennal tubercles.

Foxglove aphid has a very short life cycle and populations can build rapidly. It has a wide host range.

DAMAGE

Foxglove aphids feed deep inside the plant on younger leaves. It is known to vector several virus diseases including lettuce mosaic virus.

MANAGEMENT

Monitoring requires care in order not to miss early infestations that are hidden within the lettuce. This aphid has a tendency to disperse in the plant rather than forming colonies as green peach aphid does. Control of this aphid is difficult because of its rapid population growth combined with its preferred locations deep within the head.

Common name Amount to Use R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to the impact on natural enemies and honey bees and environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
A. IMIDACLOPRID
  (Admire Pro) 7–10.5 fl oz/acre 12 21
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: Apply as a soil application. Do not apply more than 0.38 lb a.i. of imidaclophid/acre/year.
  . . . or . . .
  (Provado 1.6F) 3.75 fl oz 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: Do not apply more than 0.24 lb a.i. of imidacloprid/acre/year.
 
B. OXYDEMETON-METHYL*
  (MSR Spray) 1.5–2 pt/acre 72 See label
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: Do not apply more than 3 times/season. Labeled for head lettuce only.
 
C. DIMETHOATE
  (Dimethoate 267) 0.75 pt 48 Head lettuce: 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B   Leaf lettuce: 14
  COMMENTS: Some products only allow use on leaf lettuce; be sure to confirm on label the type of lettuce product is registered for.
 
D. ACETAMIPRID
  (Assail 70WP) 0.8–1.2 oz/acre 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: Foliar application. Allow 7 days between applications with a maximum of 5 applications/season.
 
E. PYMETROZINE
  (Fulfill) 2.75 oz 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9B
 
F. FLONICAMID
  (Beleaf 50SG) 2–2.8 oz 12 0
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 9C
 
G. SPIROTETRAMAT
  (Movento) 4–5 fl oz 24 3
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 23
 
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Lettuce
UC ANR Publication 3450
Insects and Other Arthropods
E. T. Natwick, UC Cooperative Extension, Imperial County
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects and Mites:
W. E. Chaney, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County
N. C. Toscano, Entomology, UC Riverside

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