How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Almond

Fungicide Resistance Management

(Reviewed 3/09 , updated 1/16 )

In this Guideline:


Note Not all indicated timings may be necessary for disease control (see Treatment Timing Table). If treatments are needed based on host phenology, weather monitoring, inoculum models, or environmental-disease forecasting models, suggested fungicide groups are listed for each timing.

How to use this table:

  1. Identify the disease(s) that need(s) to be managed. Know the disease history of the orchard, especially from the previous season.
  2. Select one of the suggested FRAC1 mode of action Group numbers. Numbers separated by slashes are pre-mixtures, whereas numbers grouped by pluses are tank mixtures. If several diseases need to be managed, select a group that is effective against all diseases. Refer to General Properties of Fungicides to determine which fungicides belong to each FRAC group. Group numbers are listed in numerical order within the suggested disease management program below.
  3. Rotate groups for each application within a season and, if possible, use each group only once per season, except for multi-site mode-of-action materials (e.g., M2) or natural products/biological controls (NP/BC).
ALMOND: SUGGESTED DISEASE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS BY FUNGICIDE FRAC1 GROUPS
Disease Dormant Bloom Spring Summer
Pink bud Full bloom Petal fall 2 weeks 5 weeks May June
Alternaria ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 2 3, 7, 3/9, 3/7, 3/11, 7/11
11
19
3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11, 7/11
11, 19
Anthracnose ---- 3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11 3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7/11
11
3, 3/9, 3/7, 3/11
11
M3
M4
3, 7, 3/9, 3/11, 3/7
7/11
11
M3
M4
3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7/11
11
M3
M4
3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7/11
11
M3
M4
3, 7, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7/11
11
M3
M4
Brown rot ---- 12
2 (+oil)
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
9
12
2 (+oil)
3, 7, 3/9, 3/11, 9
3/7, 7/11
11, 19
12
2 (+oil)
7, 9, 3/11
7/11, 19
---- ---- ---- ----
Green fruit rot ---- ---- 12
2 (+oil)
3/7, 3/9, 7, 9
3/11, 7/11, 19
12
2 (+oil)
3/7, 3/9, 7, 9
3/11, 7/11, 19
---- ---- ---- ----
Leaf blight ---- ---- 12
2
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
11
12
2
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
11
M3
M4
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
11
M3
M4
---- ---- ----
Scab4 M1+oil, M23 ---- ---- 12, 3/7, 3/9,
7, 7/112
3/11, 112
M3
M4, M5
12, 3/7,3/9,
7, 7/112
3/11, 112
M3
M4, M5
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7, 7/112, 3/11, 112
M23
M3, M4
M23
M4
----
Shot hole M1 2
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11, 7,
9, 11
2
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7, 7/11
9, 11, 19
2
3, 3/7, 3/9, 3/11
7, 7/11
9
11,19
7, 7/11
11, 19
M3
M4
M5
7, 7/11
11, 19
M3
M4
M5
---- ----
Bacterial spot M1,
M1+M3
---- M1,
M1+M3
M1,
M1+M3
M1,
M1+M3
M1,
M1+M3
M1 ----
Rust ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 3, 7, 3/7, 3/11
7/11
11, 19
M3
3, 7, 3/7, 3/11
7/11
11, 19
3, 7, 3/7, 3/11
7/11
11, 19
1Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions (for more information, see http://www.frac.info/). Group numbers are listed in numerical order within the suggested disease management program. Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. Refer to the fungicide efficacy table for fungicides belonging to each FRAC group.
2 Strains of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa resistant to Topsin-M, and T-Methyl are present in some California almond orchards. Resistant strains of the jacket rot fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and powdery mildew fungi have been reported in California on crops other than almond and stone fruits and may have the potential to develop in almond with overuse of fungicides with similar chemistry.
3 Use liquid lime sulfur in dormant applications and wettable sulfur at and after pre-bloom.
4 Apply petal fall treatments based on twig-infection sporulation model.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Almond
UC ANR Publication 3431

General Information

Acknowledgment: Acknowledgment: Adaskaveg et al., 2015. Efficacy and Timing of Fungicides, Bactericides, and Biologicals for Deciduous Tree Fruit, Nut, Strawberry, and Vine Crops (PDF).

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