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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Bermudagrass Seed Production

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Bermudagrass to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 1/07, updated 4/10)

In this Guideline:


Common name (trade name) Mode of Action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
acephate (Orthene) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H M/H I intermediate
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki 11 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV none
cyfluthrin (Baythroid) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
sulfur narrow (mites and citrus thrips) L/H M/L H IV short
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang, Mustang Max) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
H = high M = moderate L = low — = no information
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: Broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: Short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Bermudagrass Seed Production
UC ANR Publication 3472
General Information
Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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