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Root system heavily infested with root knot nematode.

Eggplant

Nematodes

Scientific Name: Root knot nematode: Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica

(Reviewed 4/10, updated 4/10)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST

Root-knot nematodes spend part of their life inside plant roots, and part in soil. Second-stage juvenile nematodes hatch from eggs that remain in the soil after crop harvest. They then move through the soil and penetrate and enter the roots of host plants. Once inside the roots they become immobile, and develop into females. Mature female root knot nematodes are pear-shaped and about 0.01 inch long. The roots are modified by the nematodes and start to form the typical root galls. Mature females resemble tiny, white pearls; they sometimes can be seen with the use of a hand lens when root galls are cut open. New eggs are produced by the females that either hatch into second-stage juveniles during the same growing season, or remain in the soil after harvest as inoculum for the next host crop. The time it takes the nematodes to go through their life cycle depends largely on the nematode species, soil temperature, and type of crop, but can be as short as 3-4 weeks.

DAMAGE

Root knot nematodes cause characteristic galls on roots; galls may be up to 1 inch in diameter, but are usually smaller. These galls interfere with the flow of water and nutrients to the plant; infected plants appear less vigorous than healthy plants, may be yellowed, are prone to wilt in hot weather, and respond poorly to fertilizer. Damage areas usually appear as irregular patches and are frequently associated with lighter-textured soils.

MANAGEMENT

Assess the population level and damage potential based on soil sampling or the history of injury in previous crops. Because root knot nematodes feed and multiply on many weed species, weed control is an important aspect of their management.

Cultural Control
Planting a field to nonhost crops can help to reduce nematode populations. Long-term, bare soil fallowing will also reduce, but likely not eliminate, nematode populations. Again, weed control is essential for effectiveness of fallowing. There are no known resistant varieties.

Soil solarization can provide control of many soilborne diseases, nematodes, and weed pests. By itself, it may control root knot nematode in the upper soil levels but reinfestation can occur over the course of the season because eggplant is a long season crop. Thus, soil solarization is effective only for early season control. For further information, contact your local farm advisor or see Soil Solarization: A Nonpesticidal Method for Controlling Diseases, Nematodes, and Weeds, UC ANR Publication 21377.

Grafting of eggplant onto root knot nematode resistant rootstock, usually Solanum torvum, is used in high value production systems in some European and Asian countries. This method is an effective way to prevent nematode damage and build-up, but costs are prohibitive for most California production systems.

Organically Acceptable Methods
Cultural control is acceptable for use on an organically certified crop.

Monitoring and Treatment Decisions
Although soil sampling provides more detailed information, checking for root galls is a simple way to confirm that aboveground symptoms are caused by root knot nematode injury. Check the roots of a few plants in midseason or later, even if the crop appears healthy. Check earlier if you see wilting, poor growth, or other symptoms; galls may appear as soon as a month after planting. Carefully brush or wash soil from roots to look for galls. Be sure to check some plants in the sandiest part of the field, where damage is most likely.

Check the roots of rotation crops as well, but remember that galls will not be present on nonhost crops and may not be as obvious on other susceptible crops as on eggplants. If the field has been fallowed or planted to a nonhost crop, look for root galls on nightshades and groundcherries. Other weeds may also have galls but are less reliable indicators of root knot activity. However, absence of root galls on other plants does not necessarily mean the soil is free of nematodes that could injure eggplants.

Soil sampling. Soil sampling provides the best basis for management decisions, especially in coarse textured soils. You can sample whenever the soil is in good working condition, but the best times are in spring before planting and in fall after harvest. Because of the gradual decline in populations over the winter and the gradual increase during summer, samples from fall and spring represent the high and low extremes of the population. Sampling at other times yields intermediate results that are more difficult to interpret.

Common name Amount/Acre** R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
PREPLANT
A. 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE*/CHLOROPICRIN*
  (InLine) Label rates 120 NA
  COMMENTS: Multi-purpose liquid fumigant for the preplant treatment of soil against plant-parasitic nematodes, symphylans and certain soil-borne pathogens using drip irrigation systems only. (Not as effective against weed seeds as metam sodium). Use of a plastic mulch or tarp seal is mandatory for all applications of this product.
 
B. 1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE*
  (Telone EC) Label rates 120 NA
  COMMENTS: Liquid fumigant for the preplant treatment of soil against plant-parasitic nematodes and certain other soil pests in cropland using drip irrigation systems only. (Not as effective against weed seeds as metam sodium). Use of Telone in various systems varies from county to county; always check with your county ag commissioner.
 
C. METAM SODIUM*
  (Vapam, Metam Sodium, etc.) Label rates 48 NA
  NOTE: For use in sprinkler, drip, or furrow-irrigated eggplants. Apply with enough water to penetrate 18–24 inches and treat at least 50% of planting bed width. The most common method of application is through the buried drip (2-6") under a black plastic mulch over the bed. Blade injection of metam sodium into preformed beds for weed control gives erratic nematode control; apply with irrigation water for best control of nematodes. Follow recommended waiting period on label before setting transplants out.
 
** See label for dilution rates.
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Eggplant
UC ANR Publication 3475
Nematodes
P. B. Goodell, UC IPM, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier

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