How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Alfalfa

Relative Toxicities of Insecticides and Miticides Used in Alfalfa to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

(Reviewed 11/06, updated 7/13)

In this Guideline:


Common name (example trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 Honey bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. aizawai 11.B1 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki 11.B2 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
carbaryl (Sevin) 1A broad (insects, mites) L/H H H I long
chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) 28 narrow (primarily caterpillars) L L L/M IV short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I moderate
cyfluthrin (Baythroid, Renounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
dimethoate 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I long
flubendiamide (Belt) 28 L L L/M I short
indoxacarb (Steward) 22A narrow (caterpillars, lygus) L L I moderate
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
malathion 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H II moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects, mites) H H H III moderate
methoxyfenozide (Intrepid) 18 narrow (caterpillars) L L L IV short
neem oil (Trilogy) broad (soft-bodied insects) L L L III short
permethrin (Pounce, Ambush) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
phosmet (Imidan) 1B broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate to long
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate
 
H = high M = moderate     L = low     — = no information
 
1  Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
2 Selectivity: broad means it affects most groups of insects and mites; narrow means it affects only a few specific groups.
3 Generally, toxicities are to western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis. Where differences have been measured in toxicity of the pesticide-resistant strain versus the native strain, these are listed as pesticide-resistant strain/native strain.
4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.
5 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time withreasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides, Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
6 Duration: short means hours to days; moderate means days to 2 weeks; and long means many weeks or months.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Alfalfa
UC ANR Publication 3430

General Information

Acknowledgments: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists working on a variety of crops.

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