How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Alfalfa

Alfalfa Caterpillar

Scientific Name: Colias eurytheme

(Reviewed 11/06, updated 7/13)

In this Guideline:


Description of the Pest

The yellowish-orange or whitish butterflies of the alfalfa caterpillar lay eggs on the new growth of alfalfa that is less than 6 inches tall. Eggs hatch into green caterpillars in 3 to 7 days. Full-grown caterpillars are about 1.5 inches long and are distinguished from other common caterpillars on alfalfa by their velvety green bodies and white lines along their sides.

Caterpillar populations usually result from a flight of butterflies into the field when the alfalfa is less than 6 inches tall. Extremely large numbers of adults migrating between fields are often present from June to September in the Central Valley and from May to October in the Imperial Valley. Factors contributing to economic populations are slow and uneven growth of the crop, lack of parasites, and hot, dry weather. There are four to seven generations per year of alfalfa caterpillar, and each generation is closely synchronized with the hay-cutting cycle so that the caterpillar pupates before cutting occurs.

Damage

Alfalfa caterpillars consume entire leaves. The larger larvae are most destructive. In contrast to armyworms, alfalfa caterpillars do not skeletonize leaves and will consume the midrib.

Management

The most important way to control the alfalfa caterpillar is to use nonselective insecticides against caterpillar pests in summer and preserve and encourage its natural enemies by avoiding unnecessary insecticide applications for aphids or weevils in late spring.

Biological Control

An important parasite of the alfalfa caterpillar is Cotesia medicaginis, a dark brown to black wasp about 0.25 inch long. This wasp stings very small alfalfa caterpillars and lays an egg inside. The egg hatches and the wasp larva consumes the body contents of the caterpillar. A parasitized caterpillar dies before it reaches 0.5 inch in length. It is recognized by being lighter in color than normal, somewhat shiny rather than velvety on the surface, and swollen toward the rear. Grasping the caterpillar at each end of the swelling and pulling it apart will expose the shiny, white parasite. It is important to determine the amount of parasitism because the economic threshold takes parasitism into account.

Cultural Control

Border-strip harvesting is a useful method for preserving the natural enemies of both the alfalfa caterpillar and aphids because it helps retain parasite larvae in the field. (For more details, see BORDER-STRIP HARVESTING.) Early harvesting of fields infested with economic levels of alfalfa caterpillars kills a large number of caterpillars, preserves crop yields, and avoids reducing the natural enemy population. Time this cutting to avoid serious damage, yet obtain satisfactory yield.

Organically Acceptable Methods

Biological and cultural controls, as well as sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis, are acceptable for use on an organically certified crop.

Monitoring and Treatment Decisions   (View photos of caterpillars)   

In early summer start sweeping fields with adequate plant height 2 to 3 times per week to monitor for caterpillars.

Combine monitoring of alfalfa caterpillars with armyworm monitoring as described in ALFALFA CATERPILLAR AND ARMYWORM MONITORING. Count and record the number of healthy and parasitized caterpillars caught in your sweep net on a monitoring form (PDF).

If cutting is not practical or not scheduled soon after monitoring, treat if there is an average of ten or more nonparasitized alfalfa caterpillars per sweep, fifteen or more nonparasitized armyworms per sweep, or 10 or more nonparasitized alfalfa caterpillars and armyworms combined per sweep.

Common name Amount per acre** R.E.I.‡ P.H.I.‡
(example trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
 
The following materials are listed in order of usefulness, taking into account efficacy and impact on natural enemies and honey bees. When choosing a pesticide, also consider environmental impact. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
A. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ssp. KURSTAKI#
  (various products) Label rates 4 0
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 11
  COMMENTS: Bacillus will give satisfactory control of the alfalfa caterpillar, does not affect beneficial species, and leaves no undesirable residue on the hay. Upon ingesting Bacillus the caterpillars cease feeding but may remain on plants 3-4 days before dying.
 
B. FLUBENDIAMIDE
  (Belt SC) 2–4 fl oz 12 0
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 28
  COMMENTS: A newer material; impact on beneficials not yet determined. Highly toxic to honey bees.
 
C. INDOXACARB
  (Steward EC) 6.7–11.3 fl oz 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 22A
  COMMENTS: Make no more than one application per cutting. Steward EC can be used for alfalfa grown for seed, but seeds cannot be used for sprouts intended for human consumption or livestock feed. All seed must be tagged, "Not for human or animal use.". Do not apply more than 45 fl oz/acre per crop season.
 
D. METHOXYFENOZIDE
  (Intrepid 2F) Label rates 4 0F
        7FO/H
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 18
  COMMENTS: Make no more than one application per cutting. Not for use in alfalfa grown for seed or for sprouts for human consumption. Do not apply more than 32 fl oz/acre per crop season.
 
E. METHOMYL*
  (Lannate 90SP) 0.5 lb 48 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1A
  COMMENTS: Do not graze or feed livestock for 7 days after application. Do not apply more than 3.6 lb a.i./acre per crop. Do not apply when bees are present.
 
** See label for dilution rates.
Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
# Acceptable for use on an organically grown crop.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.
F Forage
FO Fodder
H Hay
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Alfalfa
UC ANR Publication 3430

Insects and Mites

  • C. G. Summers, Entomology, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
  • L. D. Godfrey, Entomology, UC Davis
  • M. Rethwisch, UC Cooperative Extension, Riverside County (Blythe)
  • D. R. Haviland, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County
  • P. B. Goodell, Entomology, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
  • R. F. Long, UC Cooperative Extension, Yolo County

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