How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Mandatory Intervals Between Application, Reentry, and Harvest, and Hazards to Bees

(Reviewed 9/08, updated 6/15)

In this Guideline:

Common name Example trade name and formulation Restricted entry interval1 (hours) Preharvest interval1 (days) Mode of Action Group Number2 Hazards to bees3
abamectin* Agri-Mek, generic formulations 12 7 6 II
abamectin* Clinch bait 12 0 6 IV
acequinocyl Kanemite 15SC 12 7 20B IV
acetamiprid Assail 70WP, 30SG 12 7 4A III
azadirachtin Neemix 4.5 4 0 un III
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai# various 4 0 11 IV
Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki# various 4 0 11 IV
beta-cyfluthrin* Baythroid XL 12 0 3A I
bifenazate Acramite 12 1 year un III
bifenthrin* Brigade WSB 12 1 3A I–III4
buprofezin Applaud 12 3 16 IV
carbaryl* Sevin XLR Plus 12 5 1A III
chlorantraniliprole Altacor 4 1 28 IV
chlorpyrifos* Lorsban Advanced 5 days 21, 28, or 355 1B I
cyantraniliprole Verimark 4 1 28
cyantraniliprole Exirel 12 1 28
cryolite Kryocide, Prokil Cryolite 96 12 15 un IV
cyfluthrin* Tombstone 12 0 3 I
dicofol Dicofol 4E 12 7 un IV
diflubenzuron Micromite 80WGS 12 21 15 IV
dimethoate Dimethoate 400, 4E, and 2.67 14 days 15 or 45 1B I
fenpropathrin* Danitol 2.4EC 24 1 3A I
fenbutatin oxide* Vendex 50WP 48 7 12B IV
flupyradifurone Sivanto 200SL 12 10 4D
formetanate hydrochloride Carzol SP 9 days6 30 1A III
fenpyroximate Fujimite 5EC 12 14 21A IV
hexythiazox Onager 12 28 10A IV
imidacloprid (soil application) Admire Pro, generics 12 0 4A I6
imidacloprid (foliar application) Admire Pro, generics 12 0 4A I
imidacloprid (foliar) + beta-cyfluthrin Leverage 360 12 0 4A + 3A I
iron phosphate Sluggo 0 0 IV
malathion Malathion 8 Flowable 72 7 1B II
metaldehyde various 12 0 IV
methidathion* Supracide 30 days7 14 or 608 1B I
methomyl* Lannate LV 3 days 1 1A III
methoxyfenozide Intrepid 2F 4 1 18 IV
micronized sulfur various 24 0 IV
naled Dibrom 8 Emulsive 48 7 1B I
neem oil Trilogy 4 0 III
oil 415, 440 4 When dry9 III
phosmet Imidan 70W 3 days 7 1B I
propargite Omite 42 days 365 12C IV
pyrethrin PyGanic EC5.0II 12 0 3A III
pyrethrin + piperonyl butoxide Pyrenone Crop Spray 12 When dry 3A + — III
pyriproxyfen Esteem 0.86EC, Esteem Ant Bait 12 1 7C IV
pyridaben Nexter 12 7 21A III
rosemary oil + peppermint oil Ecotrol EC 0 0 IV
sabadilla Veratran D 0.2% 24 When dry IV
spinetoram Delegate WG 4 1 5 III10
spinosad Success Naturalyte, Entrust Naturalyte# 4 1 5 III10
spirodiclofen Envidor 2SC 12 7 23 I
spirotetramat Movento 24 1 23
thiamethoxam Actara 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam Platinum 12 0 4A I
thiamethoxam + chlorantraniliprole Voliam Flexi 12 1 4A + 28
wettable sulfur# various 24 0 IV
zeta-cypermethrin Mustang 12 3 3A I
Information not available
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
# Acceptable for use on organically grown produce.
NA Not applicable; for use on nonbearing trees only.
1 Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment until the orchard can be harvested. In some cases the R.E.I. exceeds the P.H.I.; the longer of these two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest may take place.
2 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at
3 Ratings are as follows: I = Do not apply to blooming plants; II = Apply only during late evening; III = Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV = Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides (PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.
4 If rate is less than 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is III; if 0.04 lb a.i./acre, rating is II; if 0.06 lb a.i./acre, rating is I.
5 Preharvest interval is 21 days for up to 7 pt/acre or 35 days for over 7 pt/acre and 28 days for ant control.
6 Do not apply during bloom because bees may be drawn to irrigation water.
7 Restricted entry interval is 40 days for low-volume sprays as authorized under a Special Local Needs permit.
8 Preharvest interval is 14 days when applied without oil and 60 days when applied with oil.
9 Special hazards are associated with oil treatments on green lemons; check label for preharvest interval.
10 Safe to bees 2 hrs after application has dried.



[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus
UC ANR Publication 3441

General Pesticide Information

Acknowledgements: This table was compiled based on research data and experience of University of California scientists who work on a variety of crops and contribute to the Pest Management Guideline database, and from Flint, M. L. and S. H. Dreistadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: An Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, ANR Publication 3386.

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