How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines

Cherry

Cherry Leafhopper

Scientific Name: Fieberiella florii

(Reviewed 11/09, updated 11/09)

In this Guideline:


Description of the Pest

Adult cherry leafhoppers are dark brown and their shape and color mimic the buds of their hosts. This leafhopper overwinters as nymphs on ornamental hosts such as privet, boxwood, myrtle, hawthorn, pyracantha, Ceanothus, Cotoneaster, crabapple, and apple and as eggs on ornamental hosts and deciduous fruit trees. This leafhopper is not as active as the mountain leafhopper and does not travel as far in search of hosts. Cherry is a preferred host for this species. There are three periods of adult activity: mid-April through May; during July; and September through October.

Damage

This leafhopper is of concern as a vector of X-DISEASE (aka cherry buckskin) and can be responsible for severe outbreaks of this disease.

Management

When X-disease is present in an orchard or adjacent areas, the recommended management is two-pronged: regular in-season insecticide treatments, and the removal of infected trees soon after treatment while an effective insecticide residue is still present. For in-season treatments, treat immediately after harvest and at 4- to 6-week intervals thereafter. The actual length of the interval depends upon the residual effectiveness of the insecticide used.

When the incidence of X-disease is high in the orchard and in instances where in-season control has been unsatisfactory (usually rare), consider making a DORMANT OR DELAYED-dormant (from December to February) treatment for this leafhopper in addition to an in-season spray program.

It is also advisable to treat and remove ornamental hosts of leafhoppers in or near the orchard that vector the pathogen that causes X-disease. Use an insecticide registered for ornamentals and make the first treatment during the dormant period or in March to early April for overwintering nymphs. Make a second treatment in latter half of June to control nymphs that have hatched from overwintering eggs. Yellow sticky traps may provide information on the types and sources of leafhoppers but should not be used for treatment decisions.

Common name Amount to use** R.E.I.‡ P.H.I.‡
(trade name) (conc.) (dilute)
(hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
 
The following are ranked with the pesticides having the greatest IPM value listed first—the most effective and least harmful to natural enemies, honey bees, and the environment are at the top of the table. When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to air and water quality, resistance management, the pesticide's properties, and application timing. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read the label of the product being listed.
 
DORMANCY OR DELAYED-DORMANCY
 
A. NARROW RANGE OIL 4-8 gal 1.5-2 gal See label 0
  MODE OF ACTION: Improves translaminar movement and insecticide persistence.
  . . . PLUS . . .
  METHIDATHION*
  (Supracide) 25W 4-8 lb 1-2 lb 3 days See comments
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Apply before blossoms open or injury may result. Do not make more than one application per crop season. Pyrethroids applied at this time can be disruptive to beneficials.
  . . . or . . .
  CHLORPYRIFOS*
  (Lorsban Advanced) 2 qt 0.5 qt 4 days See comments
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: Most effective during delayed dormancy. Apply before blossoms open or injury may occur. Do not graze livestock in treated areas or feed them treated cover crops. Avoid drift and runoff into surface water or choose alternative materials. Chlorpyrifos has been found in surface waters at levels that violate federal and state water quality standards.
  . . . or . . .
  DIAZINON* 50WP 2 lb 0.5 lb 4 days 21
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: Provides only immediate control. No control 2 days after application. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters. Where cherries are grown adjacent to waterways, do not use this material.
  . . . or . . .
  ESFENVALERATE*
  (Asana XL) 0.66EC 4.8-14.5 oz 2-5.8 oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Provides long-term control. May cause serious outbreaks of spider mites. Do not exceed 0.375 lb a.i./acre/season. Pyrethroids applied at this time can be disruptive to beneficials.
 
POSTHARVEST
 
A. ESFENVALERATE*
  (Asana XL) 0.66EC 4.8-14.5 oz 2.0-5.8 oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
  COMMENTS: Provides long-term control. May cause serious outbreaks of spider mites. Do not exceed 0.375 lb a.i./acre/season. At 10 oz/acre has a 4-week residual; at 14 oz/acre has a 6-week residual.
 
B. LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN*
  (Warrior II with Zeon) 1.28-2.56 fl oz 0.32-0.84 fl oz 24 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 3
 
C. THIAMETHOXAM
  (Actara) 25WDG 5.5 oz 1 oz 12 14
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: May only be applied once after bloom. Do not apply by air. Has a 4-week residual at the highest label rate.
 
D. DIAZINON* 50WP 2 lb 0.5 lb 4 days 21
  MODE-OF-ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1B
  COMMENTS: Provides only immediate control. No control 2 days after application. Avoid drift and tailwater runoff into surface waters. Where cherries are grown adjacent to waterways, do not use this material.
 
** For concentrate applications, use the amount given in 80-100 gal water/acre, or lower if the label allows; for dilute applications, amount is per 100 gal water to be applied in 300-400 gal water/acre, according to label.
Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode-of-action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cherry
UC ANR Publication 3440

Insects and Mites

  • J. A. Grant, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
  • J. L. Caprile, UC Cooperative Extension, Contra Costa County
  • W. W. Coates, UC Cooperative Extension, San Benito County
  • R. A. Van Steenwyk, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley
  • K. M. Daane, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier
Acknowledgment for contributions to Insects and Mites:
  • J. Colyn, Mid-Valley Ag. Services
  • M. Devencenzi, Devencenzi Ag. Pest Mgmt. and Research
  • P. McKenzie, Mid-Valley Ag. Services

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