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How to Manage Pests

UC Pest Management Guidelines


Celery

Foxglove Aphid

Scientific Name: Aulacorthum solani

(Reviewed 10/05, updated 6/08)

In this Guideline:


DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST

Foxglove aphid has several color forms, ranging from green to orange to pink. Most wingless aphids have dark green areas at the base of the cornicles (projections from the rear of the abdomen). Some of the wingless aphids have many black markings on the top of the abdomen as well. The winged adults are browner in color than the wingless forms, but also have various black markings.

Foxglove aphid is a pest of lettuce in California's Central Coast, although it may also occur on other crops. Foxglove aphid is nearly indistinguishable in the field from another pest of lettuce, the lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribis-nigri), and in fact in many parts of the world the two commonly infest the same fields. These two aphids, however, can be distinguished from green peach aphid by the lack of prominent, converging antennal tubercles.

Foxglove aphid has a very short life cycle and populations can build rapidly. It has a wide host range.

DAMAGE

Foxglove aphids feed deep inside the plant on younger leaves. It is known to vector several viral diseases.

MANAGEMENT

Monitoring and Treatment Decisions
Monitoring requires care in order not to miss early infestations that are hidden within the lettuce. This aphid has a tendency to disperse in the plant rather than forming colonies as green peach aphid does. Control of this aphid is difficult because of its rapid population growth combined with its preferred locations deep within the plant.

Common name Amount to Use R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(trade name)   (hours) (days)

  Calculate impact of pesticide on air quality
When choosing a pesticide, consider information relating to water quality and impact on natural enemies and bees. Not all registered pesticides are listed. Always read label of product being used.
 
AT PLANTING
A. IMIDACLOPRID
  (Admire) 2F 10–24 fl oz 12 45
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: Soil application. Use at planting in fields that have a history of aphid infestations. The rate applied affects the length of control. Use higher rates where infestations occur later in crop development or where pest pressure is continuous. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb a.i./acre/year. Repeat applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide (acetamiprid-Assail or imidacloprid-Admire) can lead to resistance to all neonicotinoids. Alternate neonicotinoids with an insecticide that has a different mode of action to help delay the development of resistance.
 
AFTER PLANTING
A. ACETAMIPRID
  (Assail) 70WP 0.8–1.2 oz 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 4A
  COMMENTS: Thorough coverage is important. Do not make more than 5 applications/season. Repeat applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide (acetamiprid-Assail or imidacloprid-Admire) can lead to resistance to all neonicotinoids. Alternate neonicotinoids with an insecticide that has a different mode of action to help delay the development of resistance.
 
B. PYMETROZINE
  (Fulfill) 2.75 oz 12 7
  MODE OF ACTION: A pyridine azomethine (Group 9B)1 insecticide.
  COMMENTS: Thorough coverage is important. Do not exceed 5.5 oz/acre/season. Apply when aphids first appear before populations reach damaging levels.
 
C. ENDOSULFAN*
  (Thionex) 3EC 1–1.33 qt/acre 24 4
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 2A
  COMMENTS: Do not make more than 1 application/season. Do not exceed 1.33 qt/acre/year. Cannot be applied in any situation where runoff will occur.
 
D. OXAMYL*
  (Vydate L) 1–2 qt 48 21
  MODE OF ACTION GROUP NUMBER1: 1A
  COMMENTS: Do not apply more than 3 gal/acre/season.
 
* Permit required from county agricultural commissioner for purchase or use.
+ Restricted entry interval (R.E.I.) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Preharvest interval (P.H.I.) is the number of days from treatment to harvest. In some cases the REI exceeds the PHI. The longer of two intervals is the minimum time that must elapse before harvest.
1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent the development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

[Precautions]

PUBLICATION

[UC Peer Reviewed]

UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Celery
UC ANR Publication 3439
Insects
L. D. Godfrey, Entomology, UC Davis
J. T. Trumble, Entomology, UC Riverside
Acknowledgement for contributions to Insects:
W. E. Chaney, UC Cooperative Extension, Monterey County

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