How to Manage Pests

Pests in Gardens and Landscapes

Seasonal development and life cycle—True bugs

True bugs go through incomplete metamorphosis. Depending on the species, eggs are laid exposed on foliage or bark or inserted in plant tissue. The flightless nymphs gradually change to winged adults without any pupal stage.

Life cycle of a true bug, the harlequin bug
Life cycle of a true bug, the harlequin bug


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

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