Frost damage causes shoots, buds, and flowers to wilt, turn brown or black, and die in frost tender plants.
Whole branches or entire plants may be killed. Succulent plant tissue in the spring is especially susceptible
to frost. In some species, blossoms may fail to develop if exposed to frost when budding.
The degree of cold injury is influenced by the duration and frequency of frost. To prevent frost damage,
do not plant species adapted to mild climates in areas where freezing temperatures occur. Provide soil with
adequate moisture to increase its ability to retain heat. When frost is expected, cover sensitive plants overnight
with, for example, an old sheet to reduce heat loss to the atmosphere; remove covers during the day. Placing
electric lights (Christmas lights) in the canopy, especially if plants are covered, can generate enough heat
to prevent plants from freezing. Operating sprinklers overnight to wet foliage can reduce frost damage because
extensive cold is required to turn water to ice. Do not combine the use of outdoor lights and sprinkling. Plants
adapted to the local environment usually are not permanently harmed by frost. Most established woody species
will survive light, short-term frost with minor or no injury, but many semitropical or tropical species will
be severely injured or killed by prolonged freezing temperatures.
foliage killed by frost
damage to oleander