Grape

Year-Round IPM Program for Wine and Raisin Grapes

(Reviewed 6/06, updated 10/08)

These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that reduces water quality problems related to pesticide use. Links take you to information on how to monitor, forms to use, and management practices. Track your progress through the year with the annual checklist form.

Water quality becomes impaired when pesticides move off-site and into water. Each time a pesticide application is considered, review the Pesticide Application Checklist at the bottom of this page for information on how to minimize water quality problems.

Note: This program covers the major pests of wine and raisin grapes only; information on additional pests and pests of table grapes is included in the Table Grape Year-Round IPM Program and the Grape Pest Management Guidelines.

Delayed-dormancy

What should you be doing at this time?
On a warm day, monitor vines and spurs for:
  • Mealybugs
  • Ants associated with mealybugs and European fruit lecanium scale
  • Orange overwintering spider mites
  • Cutworm

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Grape Pest Management Guidelines.

In coastal areas, check orange tortrix pheromone traps that were put up during the dormant period.
Just before budbreak, put up omnivorous leafroller pheromone traps.
  • Check traps twice weekly until a biofix date is established; thereafter, check traps weekly.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
If sharpshooters are a problem in your area, set out sticky traps just before budbreak for:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Keep records of other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Rodents
  • Branch and twig borer
  • Click beetles
  • Bud beetles
  • Eutypa

Budbreak

What should you be doing at this time?
On a warm day, monitor vines and spurs for:
  • Mealybugs
  • Ants associated with mealybugs and European fruit lecanium scale
  • Orange overwintering spider mites
  • Cutworm
  • Thrips

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF). Treat if needed according to the Grape Pest Management Guidelines.

Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor leaf wetness. Track powdery mildew ascospore release and mildew risk index.
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Consider treating for phomopsis cane and leaf spot if rain continues after budbreak.
Remove vines that have spring symptoms of Pierce's disease.
Check sticky traps for sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Rapid shoot growth

What should you be doing at this time?
Look for thrips if cold weather persists.
Look for spider mites and their natural enemies weekly on emerging leaves. Map areas of concern for bloom monitoring.
Monitor leafhoppers weekly, starting a month after budbreak or whenever first nymphs appear.
Continue checking pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

In southern San Joaquin Valley, put up vine mealybug pheromone traps around April 1 and check every two weeks.
  • If males are caught or honeydew, sooty mold, or ants are found, look for female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Orange tortrix (in coastal vineyards)
  • Omnivorous leafroller

Map areas of concern for bloom monitoring.

If European fruit lecanium scale has been a problem in the past, monitor female development on old wood.
Manage ants if mealybugs and scale are a problem.
Monitor sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor for flagging. If you see a flag, distinguish between Botrytis shoot blight and branch and twig borer.
Monitor leaf wetness. Track powdery mildew ascospore release and mildew risk index.
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Survey weeds to plan a weed management strategy.
  • If herbicides are used, record your observations (example late-spring weed surveyPDF)in order to make pre- and postemergent herbicide selection decisions.
Keep records of other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Eutypa dieback
  • Phomopsis

Bloom to véraison

What should you be doing at this time?
Monitor leafhoppers and spider mites weekly.
  • Keep (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor for Botrytis and powdery mildew by inspecting leaves and shoots.
If European fruit lecanium scale has been a problem in the past, monitor for egg hatch to time treatment.
Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in central coast areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

In areas other than southern San Joaquin valley, put up vine mealybug pheromone traps. In all areas, check traps every two weeks.
  • If males are caught or honeydew, sooty mold, or ants are found, look for female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor Pseudococcus mealybugs by looking for honeydew, sooty mold, and ant activity.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • If you see crawlers, treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
To reduce possible summer rot, Botrytis, and current leafhoppers, remove basal leaves or basal lateral shoots beginning around berry set.
  • Time leaf pull before first-generation grape leafhoppers become adults.
  • Treat for Botrytis prior to rain, if leaves are not removed.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Monitor sharpshooters:
  • Glassy-winged sharpshooter

In coastal regions near riparian and landscape areas check for:

  • Blue-green sharpshooter

Change sticky traps weekly. Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Keep records of other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Grasshopper
  • Whitefly

Véraison

What should you be doing at this time?
Monitor leafhoppers and spider mites weekly.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Check pheromone traps for:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix in coastal areas

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Check vine mealybug pheromone traps.
  • If males are found, or if honeydew, sooty mold, or ant activity is found, look for female infestations on surrounding vines.
  • Educate field crew to flag cluster infestations for treatment.

Treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.

Monitor grape and obscure mealybugs.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
  • If you see crawlers, treat if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor glassy-winged sharpshooter.
Look for symptoms of Pierce's disease.
If rain occurs shortly after veraison, monitor for Botrytis.
Monitor caterpillars if they have been a problem in the past:
  • Omnivorous leafroller
  • Orange tortrix
  • Grape leaffolder
  • Western grapeleaf skeletonizer

Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).

Look on roots of weakened vines for galls or phylloxera.
If necessary, manage birds with netting or scare devices as fruit ripens.
Keep records of other pests or pest damage you may see.
  • Whitefly
  • European fruit lecanium
  • Grasshoppers

Harvest

What should you be doing at this time?
Be aware that high populations of adult leafhoppers may interfere with hand harvesting.
Monitor for grape, obscure, and vine mealybugs.
  • Look for cluster infestations and mark on map.
  • Educate harvest crew to flag vine mealybug cluster infestations for treatment.

Treat vine mealybug if needed according to Grape Pest Management Guidelines.

If you have vine mealybug, steam sanitize equipment before moving to an uninfested area of the vineyard.
For Pierce’s disease:
  • Flag vines with symptoms for removal.
If necessary, continue managing birds with netting or scare devices.
Treat for Botrytis prior to any anticipated rain.
Sample soil and roots for nematodes; look at roots for galls and phylloxera.
Monitor for glassy-winged sharpshooter:

Postharvest

What should you be doing at this time?
If necessary, treat for vine mealybug immediately after harvest according to the Grape Pest Management Guidelines.
To reduce risk of transferring vine mealybug, do not place winery pomace in the vineyard; compost pomace or cover piles securely with clear plastic.
Look for symptoms of Pierce’s disease on vines and flag for removal.
Look for European fruit lecanium scales on leaves.
If you desire a cover crop, seed after harvest.

Dormancy

What should you be doing at this time?
Apply lime sulfur for powdery mildew in areas other than Madera, Fresno, and Tulare counties.
In coastal areas, set out orange tortrix pheromone traps by December.
  • Check traps twice weekly until a biofix date is established; thereafter, check traps weekly.
  • Keep records (example monitoring form PDF).
If present, treat for Phomopsis cane and leaf spot before rainfall.
Sample for nematodes in January or February.
Carry out dormant-season sanitation activities.
  • Prune late in dormancy after rains to reduce wound infections.
  • Destroy prunings of older infested wood to reduce pest sources.
  • Remove dried grape clusters on vines and disc weeds and clusters where orange tortrix or omnivorous leafroller is a problem.
  • In vineyards with a history of branch and twig borers, examine old pruning scars and dead parts of vines for brown frass and wood dust.
  • If you have vine mealybug, steam sanitize equipment before moving to an uninfested area of the vineyard.
Survey weeds to plan a weed management strategy.
  • If herbicides are used, record your observations (example late-winter survey form PDF) in order to make pre- and postemergent herbicide selection decisions.

Pesticide application checklist

When planning for possible pesticide applications in an IPM program, review and complete this checklist to consider practices that minimize environmental and efficacy problems.
  • Choose a pesticide from the UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines for the target pest considering:
  • Select an alternative chemical or nonchemical treatment when risk is high.
    • Choose sprayers and application procedures that keep pesticides on target.
    • Identify and take special care to protect sensitive areas (for example, waterways or riparian areas) surrounding your application site.
    • Review and follow label for pesticide handling, storage, and disposal guidelines.
    • Check and follow restricted entry intervals (REI) and preharvest intervals (PHI).
    • After an application is made, record application date, product used, rate, and location of application. Follow up to confirm that treatment was effective.
  • Consider water management practices (PDF) that reduce pesticide movement off-site:
    • Install an irrigation recirculation or storage and reuse system.
    • Use drip rather than sprinkler or flood irrigation.
    • Limit irrigation to amount required using soil moisture monitoring and evapotranspiration (ET).
    • Consider vegetative filter strips (PDF) or ditches.
    • Redesign inlets into tailwater ditches to reduce erosion.
  • Consider management practices that reduce air quality problems.
    • When possible, choose pesticides that are not in emulsifiable concentrate (EC) form which release volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs react with sunlight to form ozone, a major air pollutant.

PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a PDF reader.

Top of page


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2014 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /PMG/C302/m302yi01.html revised: April 25, 2014. Contact webmaster.