Almond

Year-Round IPM Program

(Reviewed 3/09, updated 3/09)

These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that enhances pest control and reduces environmental quality problems related to pesticide use.

Water quality becomes impaired when pesticides and sediments move off-site and into water. Air quality becomes impaired when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) move into the atmosphere. Each time a pesticide application is considered, review the Pesticide application checklist at the bottom of this page for information on how to minimize water and air quality problems.

This year-round IPM program covers the major pests of almond. Details on carrying out each practice, example monitoring forms, and information on additional pests can be found in the Almond Pest Management Guidelines. Track your progress through the year with the annual checklist form.

Dormancy to delayed-dormancy

Why is this crop stage important in an IPM program?

Mitigate pesticide effects on air and water quality

What should you be doing at this time?
Count mummy nuts in orchard.
  • If more than 2 nuts per tree remain, knock off and destroy mummy nuts to reduce navel orangeworm and brown rot before February 1.
Manage orchard floor vegetation:
  • After harvest, assess weeds present and identify those that were not controlled by a fall preemergence treatment (if applied).
  • Keep records.

In January, consider applying postemergence herbicides in tree row strips alone or in combination with preemergence materials.

Take a dormant spur sample for scale and mite eggs mid-November to mid-January.
  • Record results (PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines
Examine trees for peach twig borer hibernacula in the crotches of one-year-old wood.
Consider treatment for peach twig borer with environmentally sound material or delay treatment until bloom.
In orchards with varieties that retain leaves, monitor rust for possible spring treatment and take a first-year twig sample (green shoots) to monitor for scab infections.
  • If scab infections are high, consider dormant or delayed-dormant treatments.
Other pests you may see:
  • Armillaria root rot (oak root fungus): mushrooms emerge during wet periods.
  • Pocket gophers (mound-building activity).

Bloom to postbloom

Why is this crop stage important in an IPM program?

Mitigate pesticide effects on air and water quality..

What should you be doing at this time?
Manage navel orangeworm:
  • Be sure mummies are off trees by February 1.
  • Disc or flail mow mummies by March 15.
  • Put out egg traps:
    • Central and southern San Joaquin Valley by March 15
    • Northern San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys by April 1
Monitor peach twig borer:
When rainy conditions promote disease, time fungicide treatment according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines for:
Monitor for shot hole fruiting structures in leaf lesions as long as weather is wet.
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor San Jose scale:
  • Put up pheromone traps by March 1 and check according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
  • Record results (PDF).
Start to monitor for spider mites when mites are first seen in the lower center tree canopy.
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor for vertebrates and manage as necessary.
Other pests you may see:
  • Bacterial canker
  • Brown mite
  • European red mite
  • Forest tent caterpillar
  • Fruittree leafroller (possible nut drop)
  • Leaffooted plant bug (possible nut drop)
  • Obliquebanded leafroller
Manage orchard floor vegetation:
  • Mow ground cover before bloom for frost protection and to remove competing bloom.

Fruit development (late April to start of shaking)

Why is this crop stage important in an IPM program?

Mitigate pesticide effects on air and water quality..

What should you be doing at this time?
Monitor shoot strikes for peach twig borer and Oriental fruit moth, examining strike to properly identify species.
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor San Jose scale:
Monitor navel orangeworm egg traps:
  • Keep records (PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor ant mounds (once during April-May):
  • Keep records (PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Monitor spider mites:
  • Keep records (PDF).
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
Take leaf samples in July to make sure that nitrogen levels do not favor hull rot.
Monitor for and treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guideliness:
Assess weeds in late spring:
  • Identify uncontrolled weeds to plan future management strategies.
  • Keep records (PDF) of monitoring.
  • Continue to maintain ground cover short.
Other pests you may see:
Identify beginning of hull split; regulate irrigation during hull split to manage hull rot.

Harvest

Why is this crop stage important in an IPM program?

What should you be doing at this time?
Harvest early to avoid third-generation navel orangeworm eggs and to minimize hull rot.
Assess trunk damage to evaluate shaker or harvest operation for bark injury.
Pick up nuts promptly to avoid ant damage.
Take harvest sample to determine pest damage.
  • Store sample in freezer until nuts are cracked open for observation.

Postharvest

Why is this crop stage important in an IPM program?

What should you be doing at this time?
Look for nuts or leaves stuck in trees well after harvest, indicating hull rot.
Monitor for rust lesions. If present, apply zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) to reduce overwintering leaves.
After fall rain begins, monitor for shot hole leaf lesions with fruiting structures.
  • Treat if needed according to Almond Pest Management Guidelines.
If use of preemergence herbicide in rows is planned, time it properly.
Survey weeds:
  • Record results (PDF).
  • If use of preemergence herbicide in rows is planned, time it properly.
Don’t bother to seed a cover crop unless you have sparse resident vegetation.

Pesticide application checklist

When planning for possible pesticide applications in an IPM program, review and complete this checklist to consider practices that minimize environmental and efficacy problems.

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Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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