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Phenology Model Database

="Pink

Pink Bollworm

Scientific name: Pectinophora gossypiella

Phenology models predict timing of events in an organism's development. For many organisms which cannot internally regulate their own temperature, development is dependent on temperatures to which they are exposed in the environment.

Information in this database comes from published articles. It may be used in conjunction with field monitoring and a degree-day calculator.

Note: Before using a model that was not field tested in your location, you should test the model for one or more seasons under your conditions to verify that it will work for you.


Model 1 of 6

Beasley, C.A., and C.J. Adams. 1996. Field-based, degree-day model for pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) development. J. Econ. Entomol. 89:881-890.

Location of study: Palo Verde Valley, California (field studies)

Developmental thresholds
Lower:57.0°F(13.9°C)
Upper:91.0°F(32.8°C)

Method of calculation:Single Sine
Cutoff method:Horizontal

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Biofix: February 1
Host: cottonDD (°F)DD (°C)
Generation time (adult to adult)885492
Biofix to beginning spring emergence 409227
Biofix to spring emergence918510


Model 2 of 6

Naranjo, S. E., and J. M. Martin. 1993. Comparative development, reproduction, and oviposition of pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on a resistant okra-leaf cotton and commercial upland and pima cultivars. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1094-1103.

Location of study: Phoenix, Arizona (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:53.6°F(12.0°C)
Upper:90.5°F(32.5°C)

Method of calculation:Hourly (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)
Cutoff method:Horizontal Cutoff

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development
Host: American Pima Cotton ('Pima S-6')DD (°F)DD (°C)
Larvae (egg hatch to cutout from bolls):370.1205.6
Prepupae:103.057.2
Pupae:267.1148.4
Host: Upland Cotton ('DES-119')
Larvae (egg hatch to cutout from bolls):433.8241.0
Prepupae:100.655.9
Pupae:269.2149.6
Host: Upland Cotton ('Deltapine 90')
Larvae (egg hatch to cutout from bolls):426.1236.7
Prepupae:101.556.4
Pupae:260.8144.9
Host: Upland Cotton ('WC-12NL')
Larvae (egg hatch to cutout from bolls):446.2247.9
Prepupae:103.757.6
Pupae:265.3147.4


Model 3 of 6

Pink Bollworm. IN: Integrated Pest Management for Cotton in the Western United States. University of California Statewide IPM Project. University of Arizona Statewide IPM Project. New Mexico State University. U.C. Div. Agr. Sci. Publ. #3305.

Location of study: California and Arizona

Developmental thresholds
Lower:55.0°F(12.8°C)
Upper:86.0°F(30.0°C)

Method of calculation: Huber's method

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: January 1

 DD (°F)DD (°C)
Start of spring emergence:500.0277.8
Peak of spring emergence:1180.0655.6
End of spring emergence:2200.01222.2
Summer generation time (adult to adult):800.0444.4


Model 4 of 6

Pink Bollworm. IN: Integrated Pest Management for Cotton in the Western United States. University of California Statewide IPM Project. University of Arizona Statewide IPM Project. New Mexico State University. U.C. Div. Agr. Sci. Publ. #3305.

Developmental threshold
Lower:55.0°F(12.8°C)

Method of calculation: not specified (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: January 1

 DD (°F)DD (°C)
Start of spring emergence:500.0277.8
Peak of spring emergence:875.0486.1
End of spring emergence:2250.01250.0
Summer generation time (adult to adult):750.0416.7


Model 5 of 6

Sevacherian, V., N. C. Toscano, R. A. Van Steenwyk, R. K. Sharma, and R. R. Sanders. 1977. Forecasting pink bollworm emergence by thermal summation. Environ. Entomol. 6: 545-546.

SEE ALSO: Pink Bollworm. IN: Integrated Pest Management for Cotton in the Western United States. University of California Statewide IPM Project. University of Arizona Statewide IPM Project. New Mexico State University. U.C. Div. Agr. Sci. Publ. #3305.

Location of study: Imperial Valley, California (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:60.0°F(15.6°C)

Method of calculation: Double Triangle

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: January 1

 DD (°F)DD (°C)
Start of spring emergence:200.0111.1
Peak of spring emergence:675.0375.0
End of spring emergence:1100.0611.1
Summer generation time (adult to adult):967.0537.2


Model 6 of 6

Clavijo Albertos, S. 1974. Studies on diapause induction and development of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae), under controlled conditions. Ph.D. thesis, Entomology, University of California, Riverside. 76 p.

Location of study: Riverside, California (laboratory studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:51.3°F(10.7°C)

Method of calculation: not specified (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development
Host: Wheat germ dietDD (°F)DD (°C)
Eggs:193.1107.3
Larvae:497.2276.2
Pupae:300.6167.0
Generation time (egg to adult):990.9550.5


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