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Phenology Model Database

="Adult,

Elm Leaf Beetle

Scientific name: Pyrrhalta (Xanthogaleruca) luteola

Phenology models predict timing of events in an organism's development. For many organisms which cannot internally regulate their own temperature, development is dependent on temperatures to which they are exposed in the environment.

Information in this database comes from published articles. It may be used in conjunction with field monitoring and a degree-day calculator.

Note: Before using a model that was not field tested in your location, you should test the model for one or more seasons under your conditions to verify that it will work for you.


Model 1 of 3

Elm leaf beetle. IN: Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide. University of California Statewide IPM project. Div. Agr. Publ. #3359

Location of study: California (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:51.8°F (11.0°C)

Method of calculation: Single Sine

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: March 1

Host: English elms DD (°F)DD (°C)
First generation  
Begin monitoring egg density: 360.0200.0
Peak egg density: 510.0283.3
Peak first & second instar larvae density: 700.0388.9
Trunk spray or bark band application*: 700.0388.9
Second generation  
Begin monitoring eggs density: 1565.0869.4
Peak egg density: 1715.0952.8
Peak first instar & second larvae density: 2000.01111.1


Model 2 of 3

Dahlsten, D. L., S. M. Tait, D. L. Rowney, and B. J. Gingg. 1993. A monitoring system and development of ecologically sound treat- ments for elm leaf beetle. J. Arbor. 19: 181-186.

Location of study: California (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:51.8°F (11.0°C)

Method of calculation: not specified (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: March 1

Host: English elms  
  DD (°F)DD (°C)
First generation 
Begin sampling weekly for egg masses:329-419183-233
Eggs 509283
First instar larvae635353
Second instar larvae794441
Third instar larvae857476
Second generation 
Begin sampling weekly for egg masses:1535-1625853-903
Eggs 1715953
First instar larvae19621090
Second instar larvae20551142
Third instar larvae21291183


Model 3 of 3

Dreistadt, S. H. and D. L. Dahlsten. 1990. Relationships of temperature to elm leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) development and damage in the field. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 837-841.

Location of study: California (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower:51.8°F (11.0°C)

Method of calculation: Single Sine

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: March 1
Host: English and Siberian elms DD (°F)DD (°C)
Begin monitoring egg density: 360.0200.0
Peak generation egg density: 495.0275.0


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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