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Phenology Model Database

="Apple

Apple Maggot

Scientific name: Rhagoletis pomonella

Phenology models predict timing of events in an organism's development. For many organisms which cannot internally regulate their own temperature, development is dependent on temperatures to which they are exposed in the environment.

Information in this database comes from published articles. It may be used in conjunction with field monitoring and a degree-day calculator.

Note: Before using a model that was not field tested in your location, you should test the model for one or more seasons under your conditions to verify that it will work for you.


Model 1 of 3

Jones, V. P., D. W. Davis, S. L. Smith, and D. B. Allred. 1989. Phenology of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with cherry and hawthorn in Utah. J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 788-782.

Jones, V. P., S. L. Smith, and D. W. Davis. 1990. Comparing apple maggot adult phenology in eastern and western North America. IN: Dowell, R. V., L. T. Wilson, and V. P. Jones (eds), Apple maggot in the west, history, biology and control. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publication #3341.

Location of study: Provo, Utah

Developmental threshold
Lower: 44.1°F (6.7°C)

Method of calculation: Single Sine

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: March 1

  DD (°F)DD (°C)
1st emergence of spring adults 1456.2809.0


Model 2 of 3

Reissig, W. H., J. Barnard, R. W. Weires, E. H. Glass and R. W. Dean. 1979. Prediction of apple maggot fly emergence from thermal unit accumulation. Environ. Entomol. 8: 51-54.

Location of study: Geneva and Highland, New York (laboratory and field studies); validated near Poughkeepsie, New York.

Developmental threshold
Lower: 43.5°F (6.4°C)

Method of calculation: Max-min (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: March 1

 DD (°F)DD (°C)
1st emergence of spring adults 1129.5627.5


Model 3 of 3

Laing, J. E., and J. M. Heraty. 1984. The use of degree-days to predict emergence of the apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Ontario. Can. Ent. 116: 1123-1129.

Location of study: Guelph, Ontario, Canada (field studies)

Developmental threshold
Lower: 43.5°F (6.4°C)

Method of calculation: Modified Sine Wave (UC IPM recommends Single Sine)

Degree-day accumulations required for each stage of development

Start date: Ground clear of snow

  DD (°F)DD (°C)
1st emergence of spring adults1148.4638.0


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
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Accessibility   /PHENOLOGY/ma-apple_maggot.html revised: December 17, 2003. Contact webmaster.