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Research and IPM

Almond Production in California: A Study of Pest Management Practices, Issues, and Concerns

Part 2: Specific pest management practices for insect and mite problems

Results presented in this section are for those growers with more than 20 acres of almonds who received Version A of the questionnaire (n=168). Growers were asked to base their responses on the bearing almond acres they had within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

Q10. For each of the pests listed in the table below, indicate whether the pest was a problem within the last almond crop year; and if it was, how satisfied were you with the control measures taken: (1) very satisfied, (2) somewhat satisfied, (3) not satisfied, or (0) no control measures were taken.

In this question, growers were instructed to think about “pest problem” to mean if no control measures were taken, they believe the pest would have resulted in economic damage in their almonds.

If growers were unsure what pests they had, they were instructed to mark response as "Don't Know."

Insect Pests Was the pest a problem within the last crop year?
Percent

If YES, how satisfied were you with the control measures taken?
(n=144 to 153)

Don't
Know
No Yes No Control
Measures
Taken
Very
Satisfied
Somewhat
Satisfied
Not
Satisfied
A. San Jose scale (SJS) 8 77 15 13 62 21 4
B. Peach twig borer (PTB) 3 37 60 3 67 26 3
C. Navel orangeworm (NOW) 1 40 60 8 62 25 5
D. Mites 1 35 64 6 53 31 9
E. Ants 3 43 54 22 39 33 5
F. Oriental fruit moth (OFM) 9 81 9 19 50 31 0

Q11. For each pest listed in the table below, indicate if you or someone on your farm monitored for it within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which pests were monitored, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Monitored Insects and Mites Was the pest monitored within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=139 to 155)
Don't
Know
No Yes
A. San Jose scale (SJS) 5 30 66
B. Peach twig borer (PTB) 1 16 84
C. Navel orangeworm (NOW) 1 17 83
D. Mites 0 12 88
E. Ants 2 28 70
F. Oriental fruit moth (OFM) 12 60 27

Q13. For each practice related to monitoring insect and mite pests in almonds listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998- October 1999)

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Insect and Mite Monitoring Practices Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=150 to 154)
Don't
Know
No Yes
A. Use prior history of the pest damage to determine treatment 6 11 83
B. Look at the general appearance of the trees 2 4 94
C. Monitor emergence of peach twig borer at the overwintering hibernacula (hibernation site) 12 32 56
D. Sample blossom and shoot strikes to determine if sprays are necessary for peach twig borer 8 28 64
E. Place pheromone traps for peach twig borer 2 42 56
F. Use degree-days with monitoring 11 41 49
G. Place double sided sticky tape to monitor San Jose scale crawlers 11 70 19
H. Place pheromone sticky traps for San Jose scale males 13 72 15
I. Sample dormant spurs for San Jose scale 14 43 43
J . Sample dormant spurs for mite eggs 12 49 40
K. Use presence/absence spider mite monitoring 7 31 61
L. Brush or count mites per leaf 9 38 54
M. Place navel orangeworm egg traps 6 47 47
N. Monitor navel orangeworm eggs or larvae on mummy nuts or hull-split nuts 8 30 63
0. Count number of ant hills per orchard area 5 59 36
P. Use baited traps for ants 7 82 12

Q14. For each practice related to the use of insecticides in almonds listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999).

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Management Practices Involving the Use of Insecticides Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=151 to 159)
Don't
Know
No Yes
A. Spray a dormant insecticide such as Lorsban, Diazinon, Asana, Pounce, Ambush, Supracide, or Imidan 0 38 62
B. Use University of California Pest Management Guidelines recommended timing of insecticides and miticides 9 40 52
C. Use a dilute dormant spray (≥ 300 gallons/acre) 2 71 28
D. Choose selective insecticides (those which only kill the targeted insect) when they are available 2 18 80
E. Apply a May spray of Lorsban, Guthion, Imidan, Asana, Pounce or similar product 1 76 22
F. Apply a hull-split spray of Lorsban, Guthion, Imidan, Asana, Pounce, Ambush or similar product 1 41 59
G. Use Bt (i.e., Dipel, Biobit, Condor, etc.) or spinosad (i.e., Success) for control of peach twig borer at bloom 5 59 36
H. Use Bt (i.e., Dipel, Biobit, Condor, etc.) or spinosad (i.e., Success) for control of peach twig borer at times other than bloom 7 66 27
I. Use Stealth (an egg laying disruptive oil) to control navel orangeworm 7 82 12
J. Apply full rate of miticides with all in-season sprays 6 71 24
K. Use lower than low label rates of miticides to preserve predatory mites 7 51 41
L. Apply dormant oil with no insecticide to kill scale or overwintering mite eggs 3 70 27
M. Apply summer oil alone to kill spider mites, leafhoppers or scale crawlers 5 84 12
N. Use pheromone mating disruption 8 84 8
0. Maintain a vegetative cover in winter to reduce runoff 1 22 77
P. Spray whole orchard floor for ants 3 81 16
Q. Spot treat ant colonies by using a Lorsban spray 1 81 19
R. Use a bait application for ants 1 68 32

Q15. For each cultural and biological insect management practice listed below, indicate if you or someone on your farm used the practice within the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-October 1999)

If growers were unsure which specific practices were used, they were instructed to mark response as "Don’t Know."

Cultural and Biological Insect Management Practices Was the practice used within the last crop year?
Percent
(n=152 to 156)
Don't
Know
No Yes
A. Perform annual winter sanitation to remove mummy nuts during winter by shaking 0 39 62
B. Perform annual winter sanitation to remove mummy nuts during winter by poling 1 55 44
C. Count mummy nuts to determine winter sanitation effectiveness (less than 2 mummies per tree) 3 43 54
D. Harvest early before beginning of third generation egg laying by navel orangeworm 11 27 63
E. Collect infested mummy nuts and hold for Goniozus parasite emergence 5 91 3
F. Minimize tree stress to decrease subsequent spider mite outbreaks (i.e. ripping soil, irrigation, gypsum, etc.) 1 19 79
G. Minimize dust to avoid spider mite outbreaks (i.e., watering road or driving slower) 1 10 89
H. Monitor for predatory mites and six spotted thrips 7 23 70
I. Monitor sticky traps for San Jose scale parasites 10 72 18
J. Release predatory mites for spider mite control 2 87 11
K. Release navel orangeworm parasites, Goniozus, for navel orangeworm control 5 88 8
L. Plant insectary shrubs or cover crops to attract beneficials 3 82 15

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