UC IPM Online UC ANR home page UC IPM home page

UC IPM Home

SKIP navigation

 

Research and IPM

Almond Production in California: A Study of Pest Management Practices, Issues, and Concerns

UC Statewide IPM Program researchers surveyed California almond growers in 2000 to learn more about specific pest management practices, and pest management decision-making for the 1999 growing season. The survey targeted growers who grew almonds as a primary crop or more than 20 acres.

Anthracnose causing shoot dieback and defoliation on almond (left).

Part I: General pest management decision making for insects and mites, weeds, diseases, and nematodes

Q1. Do you usually have PCAs or other consultants who advise you or someone on your farm on pest management decisions?
  Percent
(n=299)
NO PCA OR OTHER CONSULTANTS INVOLVED WITH PEST MANAGEMENT DECISIONS 9
PCA OR OTHER CONSULTANTS ARE INVOLVED 91

Q2. For each of the following pest management areas listed in the table below, please indicate who usually has the most influence in the decision making in that area.

Areas of Pest Management Decision Making Person with Most Influence
Percent
(n=274 to 285)
Mostly you, the grower Mostly PCA or other consultant Jointly between you, the grower, and PCA or other consultant No pest management actions taken in this area
Practices used to monitor insects and mites 14 41 44 0
Practices involving the use of insecticides 15 22 62 1
Cultural or biological insect and mite management practices 20 22 50 8
Weed management practices involving use of herbicides 46 8 44 1
Cultural and biological weed management practices 47 8 33 12
Disease management practices 13 25 59 2
Nematode management practices 19 15 31 35
Q3. How many PCAs were involved in the management of pests in your almonds in the last almond crop year, postharvest season through harvest (November 1998-December 1999)?
  Percent
(n=271)
NO PCA INVOLVED, ONLY OTHER TYPES OF CONSULTANTS 3
ONE PCA INVOLVED 72
TWO PCAs INVOLVED 22
THREE OR MORE PCAs INVOLVED 3
Q4. (NOTE: Q4 allowed for multiple responses pertaining to types of PCAs who have been involved in pest management; this question served as the lead-in to Q5.)
Q5. How would you best describe your primary PCA’s relationship to almond production on your farm? (Primary PCA is the one the grower worked with most closely.)
  Percent
(n=265)
INDEPENDENT, NOT AFFILIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT SUPPLIER 31
IN-HOUSE OR ONE OF YOUR EMPLOYEES 5
AFFILIATED WITH AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS SUPPLIER 63

SOME OTHER ARRANGEMENT

1
Q6. How often during the peak season, bloom time through harvest (roughly March through October), did your primary PCA or one of his or her employees visit your orchard to inspect for insects, mites, weeds, or diseases?
  Percent
(n=270)
LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH 11
ABOUT ONCE A MONTH 11
EVERY COUPLE OF WEEKS OR SO 21
ONCE A WEEK 41
TWICE A WEEK 12
MORE THAN TWICE A WEEK 3
Q7a. Did you receive status reports from your primary PCA showing trap counts, mite levels, weed infestations, beneficial activity, or other indicators of what is happening in your orchard?
  Percent
(n=277)
NO REPORTS RECEIVED 22
REPORTS RECEIVED 78
Q7b. For each type of status report, indicate how often you receive that type of report from your primary PCA during the peak season, bloom time through harvest (roughly March - October).
Types of Status Reports Frequency of Reports in the Peak Season
(Bloom Time through Harvest)
Percent
(n= 217)
Not used at all At least once, but not more than once a month 2-3 times a month About once a week Twice a week More than twice a week
VERBAL (in person or telephone) 8 21 21 37 7 6
WRITTEN REPORT (other than email or FAX) 46 17 7 28 1 0
EMAIL MESSAGE 98 1 0 1 0 0
FAX 80 7 5 7 1 1
Q8. (NOTE: This open-ended text question asked the growers if they wanted to say anything else about their working relationships with their primary PCA.)
Q9. Among almond growers who use a PCA, on the average from 1997-1999 what % of the time did you follow PCA recommendations for pest management actions in each of the main pest areas?
How often for each pest area** Insects and mites
(n=263)
Weeds
(n=238)
Diseases
(n=252)
Not at all* 1% 12% 5%
Half the time or less 10% 17% 7%
More than half to three quarters of the time 9% 12% 10%
About 80 to 90% of the time 30% 26% 25%
Nearly always or 91-99% of the time 9% 5% 9%
100% of the time 41% 29% 44%
*In some cases, there may have been no PCA recommendations given in particular pest areas.
**Because less than one quarter of growers have sampled for nematodes within the 5 years prior to the survey, many growers do not have PCA involvement in nematode management.

Top of page


Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2014 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /IPMPROJECT/almondsurvey1.html revised: July 10, 2014. Contact webmaster.