Educational Materials: Detailed Descriptions

Third Edition
Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide

Published 2016  ·  UC ANR Publication 3359  ·  437 pages

List of contents
Where this information came from
How to order

Cover of the book, Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs, Third Edition.

This comprehensive and authoritative book is an indispensable resource for landscapers, home gardeners, and parks and grounds managers. This integrated pest management (IPM) guide is easy to use and covers hundreds of insects, mites, nematodes, plant diseases, weeds, and other problems damaging to California landscapes.

Beautifully and profusely illustrated, the book includes

  • 575 high-quality, color photographs to help you recognize the causes of plant damage and identify pests and their natural enemies
  • Problem-Solving Tables to help you diagnose the pests and maladies of over 200 genera of alphabetically-listed trees and shrubs, with reference to specific pages for photographs and management
  • 101 line drawings and charts of pest biology and control techniques

Over 100 University of California (UC) researchers, Cooperative Extension advisors and specialists, and landscape professionals contributed to this essential resource. A UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR) best seller from the UC Statewide IPM Program.

Featured topics include

  • Pest-resistant plants and landscape design
  • Planting, irrigating, and other cultural practices that keep plants healthy
  • Conserving natural enemies to biologically control pests
  • Efficient monitoring so you know when to act
  • Selective pesticides and when their use may be warranted
  • Numerous references to regularly-updated, online guides with more pesticide choices and the latest IPM practices

The main chapters are

  • What's in this book?
  • Designing an IPM program
  • Growing healthy trees and shrubs
  • Abiotic disorders
  • Diseases
  • Insects, mites, and snails
  • Weeds
  • Nematodes
  • Problem-solving tables, a plant-by-plant guide

Outstanding resource

"Outstanding resource for maintaining healthy, woody ornamental plants through IPM."
−International Society of Arboriculture

"An indispensable resource for professional landscape managers and home gardeners alike..."
−Arborist News

"The most thorough, balanced, and non-judgmental treatment of pests in the landscape..."
−Pacific Horticulture

"Gorgeous and plentiful photographs..."
−The IPM Practitioner

List of Contents - Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs - Third Edition

Contributors and Acknowledgments
What’s in This Book
Designing an IPM Program

Which Organisms Are Pests? - IPM Program Components    Prevention    Pest Identification and Symptom Diagnosis    Regular Monitoring for Pests    Action Guidelines and Thresholds    Management Methods    Cultural Control    Mechanical Control    Physical Control    Biological Control    Chemical Control (Pesticides)

Growing Healthy Trees and Shrubs

Growth Requirements    Plant Development and Seasonal Growth    Design a Pest–Tolerant Landscape    Select the Right Type of Planting for the Site    Provide for Roots    Consider Mycorrhizae    Choose the Right Tree or Shrub    Climate    Site Environment    Soil    Water    Select Healthy Plants    Pest Resistance    Plant Compatibility    Edible Landscapes    Sustainable Landscapes    Site Preparation and Planting    Prepare the Site    Assess Drainage    Prepare the Soil    Plant Properly    Staking    Care for Young Trees and Shrubs    Water Management    Water and Pest Problems    Irrigation    Soil Properties    Estimating Irrigation Needs    Irrigation Methods    Conserve Water in Landscapes    Fertilizing Woody Plants    Fertilization and Pests    Nutrient Deficiencies    Pruning    Reasons for Pruning    Pruning and Pest Management    When To Prune    How To Prune    Avoid Topping Trees    Injuries, Hazards, and Protecting Landscapes    Recognize Hazardous Trees    Protect Trees During Construction    Minimize Fire Hazards

Abiotic Disorders

Water Deficit and Excess    Aeration Deficit    Nutrient Deficiencies    Nitrogen    Phosphorus    Potassium    Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium (NPK)    Iron    Manganese    Zinc    Magnesium    Nitrogen Excess    Salinity    Boron and Other Specific Ions    pH Problems    Buffering Capacity    Herbicide Phytotoxicity    Other Chemical Phytotoxicity    Chilling Injury    Freezing and Frost    Sunburn    Sunscald    High and Low Light    Thermal Injury, or High Temperatures    Edema    Rose Phyllody    Mechanical Injury    Hail    Wind    Lightning    Gas Injury    Air Pollution    Ozone


Types of Pathogens    Monitoring and Diagnosing Diseases    Disease Management    Resistant Plants    Quality Planting Material    Exclude Foreign Pests    Planting Site and Design    Mulch    Irrigation    Fertilization    Pruning    Sanitation    Disinfecting Tools    Weed and Insect Control    Soil Solarization    Biological Control    Beneficial Microorganisms    Pesticides    Blossom and Fruit Diseases    Azalea Petal Blight and Rhododendron Petal Blight    Botrytis Blight, or Gray Mold    Camellia Petal Blight    Drippy Nut Disease, or Drippy Acorn    Leaf and Twig Diseases    Anthracnose    Blights    Bacterial Blast, Blight, and Canker    Fire Blight    Needle Blight and Cast    Oak Twig Blight    Fasciation    Leaf Spots    Black Spot    Diamond Scale    Entomosporium Leaf Spot    Scab    Septoria Leaf Spot    Shot Hole    Mildews and Molds    Downy Mildew    Powdery Mildew    Mosaic and Mottle Viruses    Abutilon Mosaic Virus    Camellia Yellow Mottle Virus    Nandina Mosaic Virus    Rose Mosaic Virus    Wisteria Vein Mosaic Virus    Olive Knot and Oleander Gall    Rusts    Chrysanthemum White Rust    Cedar, Cypress, and Juniper Rusts    Pine Needle Rusts    Western Gall Rust    White Pine Blister Rust    Yellows, or Phytoplasmas    Limb and Trunk Diseases    Canker Diseases    Annulohypoxylon Canker, or Hypoxylon Canker    Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback    Chinese Elm Anthracnose Canker    Cypress Canker    Cytospora Canker    Ficus Canker    Foamy Canker, or Alcoholic Flux    Nectria Canker    Oak Branch Canker and Dieback    Pitch Canker of Pines   Raywood Ash Canker and Decline    Sooty Canker    Sudden Oak Death and Ramorum Blight    Sycamore Canker Stain    Walnut Thousand Cankers Disease    Crown Gall    Pink Rot of Palms    Sudden Crown Drop of Palms    Wetwood, or Slime Flux    Wood Decay    Vascular Wilt Diseases    Bacterial Leaf Scorch, or Oleander Leaf Scorch    Dutch Elm Disease    Fusarium Dieback    Fusarium Wilt    Fusarium Wilt of Palms    Huanglongbing, or Citrus Greening    Laurel Wilt    Verticillium Wilt    Mushrooms and other Spore-Forming Structures in Landscapes    Root and Crown Diseases    Armillaria Root Disease    Dematophora Root Rot    Heterobasidion Root Disease    Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot    Pythium Root Rot

Insects, Mites, and Snails

Damage    Life Cycles    Control Action Guidelines, or Thresholds    Monitoring and Diagnosing Problems    Sampling    Management    Cultural Control    Mechanical Control    Sticky Barriers    Physical Control    Biological Control    Importation, or Classical Biological Control    Conservation and Enhancement    Augmentation     Types of Natural Enemies    Parasites    Pathogens    Predators    Birds and Other Vertebrates    Assassin Bugs    Lacewings and Dustywings    Lady Beetles    Minute Pirate Bugs    Predaceous Flies    Predaceous Ground Beetles    Soldier Beetles   Predaceous Mites    Spiders    Pesticides    Microbial and Biological Insecticides    Botanicals    Inorganics    Insecticidal Soaps    Oils    Organophosphates, Carbamates, and Pyrethroids    Neonicotinoids    Home Invasions by Nuisance Pests    Foliage, Fruit, and Root Chewers    Caterpillars    Sawflies    Leaf Beetles    Weevils    White Grubs and Scarab Beetles    Indian Walking Stick    Crickets, Grasshoppers, and Katydids    Ants    Sucking Insects    Psyllids    Aphids    Aphids With Many Hosts   Host-Specific Aphids    Woolly Aphids    Adelgids    Whiteflies    Mealybugs    Scales    Armored Scales    Soft Scales    Other Common Scales    Cicadas    Leafhoppers and Sharpshooters    Planthoppers     Treehoppers    Spittlebugs    True Bugs    Ash Plant Bugs     Boxelder Bugs    Lace Bugs    Stink Bugs    Thrips    Gall Makers    Ceanothus Stem Gall Moth    Ficus Gall Wasp    Gall Midges    Oak Gall Wasps    Willow Gall Sawflies    Foliage Miners    Cypress Tip Miners    Oak Ribbed Casemaker    Pine Tip Moths    Shield Bearers    Twig, Branch, and Trunk Boring Insects    Management of Wood Borers    Ambrosia Beetles    Bark Beetles     Flatheaded Borers, or Metallic Wood Borers    Longhorned Beetles, or Roundheaded Wood Borers    Clearwing Moths    Pitch Moths    Other Borers    American Plum Borer    Carpenterworm    Juniper Twig Girdler    Raspberry Horntail    Wood Wasps, or Horntails    Termites    Bee and Yellowjacket Nuisance    Fruit Flies    Mites    Pillbugs and Sowbugs    Snails


Weed Management Before Planting    Assess and Monitor the Site    Landscape Maps     Prepare the Planting Site    Sheet Mulching    Cultivation     Solarization    Redesign Landscapes To Avoid Weeds    Edging, or Headers    Prevent Weed Introductions    Exclude Invasive Plants    Encourage Establishment of Desired Plants    Weed Management in Plantings    Hand-Pulling    Hoeing    Mowers and String Trimmers    Flamers and Other Weed Heaters    Hot Water or Steam    Mulch    Organic Mulches    Inorganic and Synthetic Mulches    Mulching Problems    Irrigation    Biological Control    Pesticides    Preemergence Herbicides    Postemergence Herbicides    Selectivity    Natural and Organic Herbicides    Safe Use and Handling    Herbicide Resistance    Types of Weeds and Their Management    Weed Identification    Annual Broadleaves    Annual Sowthistle    Common Groundsel    Cudweeds    Hairy Fleabane    Horseweed, or Mare's Tail    Prickly Lettuce    Black Medic    California Burclover    Common Purslane    Little Mallow    Spurges    Willowherbs    Annual Grasses    Annual Bluegrass    Crabgrasses    Sedges    Green Kyllinga    Nutsedges    Perennial Grasses    Bamboo    Bermudagrass    Kikuyugrass    Perennial Broadleaves    Dodders    Field Bindweed    Ivy    Mistletoes    Oxalis    Poison Oak    Wild Blackberries    Algae, Lichens, and Mosses


Damage    Identification and Biology    Management of Nematodes    Root Knot Nematodes    Root Lesion Nematodes    Dagger Nematodes    Ring Nematodes    Stunt Nematodes    Citrus Nematodes

Problem-Solving Tables

Problem-Solving Guide    Tree and Shrub Pest Tables

Names of Pests and Plants
List of Figures and Tables
Suggested Reading
Literature Cited

Contributors and Acknowledgments

This book was produced under the auspices of the University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Statewide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program.

Steve H. Dreistadt, Writer
Jack Kelly Clark, Principal Photographer
Tunyalee A. Martin and Petr Kosina, Content Supervisors
Joyce Fox Strand, Associate Director for Communications
Kassim Al-Khatib, Director
Mary Louise Flint, UC Agriculture and Natural Resources Associate Editor

Technical Coordinators for the Third Edition
Mary Louise Flint, UC IPM Program and Entomology, UC Davis
Pamela M. Geisel, UC Statewide Master Gardener Program
Deborah Mathews, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside
Tedmund J. Swiecki, Phytosphere Research
Cheryl A. Wilen, UC IPM Program and UC Cooperative Extension, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Diego Counties

Contributors to the Third Edition
J. Ole Becker, Nematology, UC Riverside
Lisa A. Blecker, UC Statewide IPM Program
Lawrence R. Costello, UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties
A. James Downer, UC Cooperative Extension, Ventura County
Richard Y. Evans, Plant Sciences, UC Davis
Janet Hartin, UC Cooperative Extension, San Bernardino County
Janine K. Hasey, UC Cooperative Extension, Sutter and Yuba Counties
Darren L. Haver, UC Cooperative Extension, Orange County
Mark Hoddle, Entomology, UC Riverside
Donald R. Hodel, UC Cooperative Extension, Los Angeles County
Chuck A. Ingels, UC Cooperative Extension, Sacramento County
John N. Kabashima, UC Cooperative Extension, Orange and Los Angeles Counties
John F. Karlik, UC Cooperative Extension, Kern County
Vincent F. Lazaneo, UC Cooperative Extension, San Diego County
Lorence R. Oki, Plant Sciences, UC Davis
Dennis R. Pittenger, UC Cooperative Extension, Central Coast, South Region, and Los Angeles County and Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside
Karrie Reid, UC Cooperative Extension, San Joaquin County
John A. Roncoroni, UC Cooperative Extension, Napa County
Andrew M. Sutherland, UC IPM Program and UC Cooperative Extension, Alameda, Contra Costa, San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties
Steven V. Swain, UC Cooperative Extension, Marin County
Steven A. Tjosvold, UC Cooperative Extension, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties

Technical Coordinators for Second Edition
Laurence R. Costello, UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties
A. James Downer, UC Cooperative Extension, Ventura County
Clyde L. Elmore, Weed Science Program, UC Davis
Donald R. Hodel, UC Cooperative Extension, Los Angeles County
John N. Kabashima, UC Cooperative Extension, Orange County
Edward J. Perry, UC Cooperative Extension, Stanislaus County
Robert D. Raabe, Division of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, UC Berkeley
Pavel Svihra, UC Cooperative Extension, Marin County
Cheryl A. Wilen, UC IPM Program and UC Cooperative Extension, Orange, Los Angeles, and San Diego Counties

Technical Coordinators for First Edition
Carlton S. Koehler, Extension Entomologist Emeritus, UC Berkeley
Arthur H. McCain, Extension Plant Pathologist Emeritus, UC Berkeley
Robert D. Raabe, Plant Pathologist Emeritus, UC Berkeley

Contributors to the Previous Editions
David H. Adams, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
Michael Baefsky, Baefsky & Associates
Bethallyn Black, UC Cooperative Extension, Contra Costa County
Pamela S. Bone, UC Cooperative Extension, Sacramento County
Heather Costa, Entomology, UC Riverside
Laurence R. Costello, UC Cooperative Extension, San Mateo and San Francisco Counties
Richard S. Cowles, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Donald L. Dahlsten, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, UC Berkeley

How to Order

This publication is available from the UC ANR Communication Services catalog online at, or phone 1-800-994-8849. It is also available from many UC County Cooperative Extension offices.

Top of page

Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2019 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.

For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance.

Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California

Accessibility   /IPMPROJECT/ADS/manual_landscape.html revised: August 1, 2019. Contact webmaster.