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Annual Reports

2003Competitive Grants Programs

Summaries of research projects are online on the UC IPM Web site. Funded projects (below) are linked to the summaries.

UC IPM Competitive Grants Program

Changes to the UC IPM Competitive Research Grants Program

In fall 2003, for the first time since 1980, UC IPM will not issue a general call for research proposals for next year’s funding. Permanent funding cuts to UC IPM during fiscal years 2002-03 and 2003-04 significantly reduced the research grants program, in addition to increasing UC IPM’s reliance on external grants for ongoing operations.  While the program fully funded this year’s continuing research projects, the possibility of further cuts makes availability of funding for projects next year uncertain. Researchers are encouraged to apply to the Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program if their projects target exotic pests or invasive species non-native to California.

The 2003-04 fiscal year marked the first time since its establishment in 1979 that the UC IPM Competitive Grants Program was not able to fund new projects. Citing the difficult budget situation, Associate Vice President Henry J. Vaux, Jr. asked that the program take on no new funding commitments, although commitments to sixteen ongoing research projects were honored.

Before that decision was made, however, the annual process for reviewing new proposals had identified five highly ranked projects for funding. Investigators of those projects (listed below) are to be congratulated on their fine submissions.


New projects approved, but not funded for 2003 - 2004

Applied Field Ecology

Spatial distribution and spread of herbicide resistance in two watergrass species (Echinochloa oryzoides and E. phyllopogon) infesting rice fields of California. M. A. Jasieniuk, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis; A. J. Fischer, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis.

Biological Controls

Evaluation of biological control of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecomei Moore, on Eucalyptus camaldulensis in California. D. L. Dahlsten, Biological Control, UC Berkeley.

Use of predatory mites in the management of banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), on dates. T. M. Perring, Entomology, UC Riverside.

Cultural Controls

Stand establishment and tillage alternatives to reduce weed seedbanks and herbicide use in rice. J. E. Hill, Agronomy and Range Science, UC Davis; A. J. Fischer, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis.

Decision Support

Development and validation of sampling plans for pests of Gerbera jamsonii. M. P. Parella, Entomology, UC Davis; R. Y. Evans, Environmental Horticulture, UC Davis; J. P. Newman, UC Coop. Ext. Ventura Co.; S. A. Tjosvold, UC Coop. Ext. Santa Cruz Co.; K. L. Robb, UC Coop. Ext. San Diego Co.


Continuing research projects funded for 2003 - 2004

Despite the freeze in funding new projects, the UC IPM Program was able to continue funding sixteen ongoing research projects. Nine research projects ended in 2003. View the UC IPM Web site for summaries of all research projects funded by the UC IPM Grants Program. Two ongoing research projects, one on olive fruit fly and the other on curlytop virus, are higlighted below.

Olive fruit fly adultThe olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is a newly established pest that severely threatens the California olive industry. UC Berkeley Entomologist Robert Van Steenwyk is investigating a number of management approaches for this pest including use of plant growth regulators and spinosad baits.

Adult beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellusUC Davis Plant Pathologist Robert Gilbertson is developing PCR-based detection methods to predict the incidence of the beet curly top virus in both the beet leafhopper vector and the tomato crop. Curly top disease can be devastating in some fields, while other fields remain free of disease. Curly top is difficult to manage because of the migratory and unpredictable nature of the leafhopper and lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of the disease. This Decision Support project hopes to substantially improve curly top management and reduce use of pesticides applied to control beet leafhopper.

A new look at an old pest: What makes lygus hungry for cotton squares. J. A. Rosenheim, Entomology, UC Davis. (Year 3 of 3; $37,879)

Biology and overwintering of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis, and corn stunt spiroplasm, Spiroplasma kunkelii, and epidemiology of corn stunt disease in the San Joaquin Valley. C. G. Summers, Entomology, UC Davis/Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier. (Year 2 of 2; $21,104)

Effects of plant age at the time of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) infection on yields. A. T. Ploeg, Nematology, UC Riverside. (Year 2 of 2; $29,555)

Biological Controls

The fungus Hirsutella thompsonii for the biological control of the Varroa mite, a pest of honey bees. C. Y. S. Peng, Entomology, UC Davis; H. K. Kaya, Nematology, UC Davis; E. C. Mussen, Entomology, UC Davis. (Year 3 of 3; $22,099)

Improved biological control of fire blight of pear and apple by introduction of antagonistic bacteria into unopened flowers. S. E. Lindow, Plant and Microbial Biology, UC Berkeley. (Year 2 of 3; $28,450)

Biorational Use of Biotic Agents

Control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, through postharvest fruit sanitation and spinosad baits (GF-120). R. A. Van Steenwyk, Environmental Science, Policy and Management, UC Berkeley. (Year 2 of 3; $25,739)

Bait development for ant control in vineyards. J. Klotz, Entomology, UC Riverside. (Year 2 of 2; $23,487)

Cultural Controls

Broccoli residue as a biofumigant for cyst nematode management in cole crops. B. B. Westerdahl, Nematology, UC Davis; E. P. Caswell-Chen, Nematology, UC Davis. (Year 3 of 3; $34,017)

Cultural manipulation of crop/weed competitive relations in a rice cropping system. A. J. Fischer, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis. (Year 2 of 3; $32,380)

Implementation value of root-galling resistance and reproduction resistance for root knot nematode management in dry beans. P. A. Roberts, Nematology, UC Riverside. (Year 2 of 3; $33,235)

Integrated management of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium). R. S. Wilson, UC Coop. Ext. Lassen Co.; J. M. DiTomaso, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis. (Year 2 of 3; $25,455)

Decision Support

Northern fowl mite effects on egg production and feed utilization efficiency. B. A. Mullens, Entomology, UC Riverside; D. R. Kuney, UC Coop. Ext. Riverside Co. (Year 3 of 3; $31,363)

California ground squirrel (permophilus beecheyi) foraging behavior: Implications for improved control. T. P. Salmon, Wildlife, Fisheries and Conservation Biology, UC Davis. (Year 3 of 3; $24,759)

Development and application of a PCR-based detection method for predicting the incidence of beet curly top virus in leafhoppers and in tomato crops. R. L. Gilbertson, Plant Pathology, UC Davis. (Year 2 of 3; $24,000)

Decision support system for IPM of prune brown rot. T. J. Michailides, Plant Pathology, UC Davis/Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier. (Year 2 of 3; $36,200)

Development of an economic injury level and monitoring methods for cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, and the predatory beetle vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis. E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, Entomology, UC Riverside/Kearney Agricultural Center; J. Trumble, Entomology, UC Riverside. (Year 2 of 3; $38,016)


Research that ended in 2003

Applied Field Ecology

Ecologically based management of vine decline of melons caused by Monosporascus cannonballus. M. E. Stanghellini, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside.

Integrating cultural methods with rice growth to improve weed control and reduce herbicide use. T. C. Foin, Agronomy and Range Sciences, UC Davis; A. J. Fischer, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis.

Vine mealybug and its natural enemies in the San Joaquin Valley. K. M. Daane, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier.

Evaluation of wheat straw mulches for pest and disease control in cucurbit production systems. J. Mitchell, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis/Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier; C. G. Summers, Entomology, UC Davis/Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier; J. J. Stapleton, Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier.

Biological Controls

Community dynamics of microorganisms associated with Heterodera schachtii suppression. J. Borneman, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside; J. O. Becker, Nematology, UC Riverside.

Examination of novel strategies to identify biological control organisms and to incorporate them into an avocado integrated pest management program. J. Borneman, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside; J. A. Menge, Plant Pathology, UC Riverside; B. Faber, UC Coop. Ext. Ventura Co.

Biological control of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in southern California. J. M. Heraty, Entomology, UC Riverside.

Biorational Use of Biotic Agents

Pheromone mating disruption strategies for codling moth in walnuts. S. C. Welter, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley.

Decision Support

Economic injury levels, within-plant vertical distribution, population dynamics, and sampling technique for tetranychid mites on corn. L. D. Godfrey, Entomology, UC Davis; J. J. Cisneros, Entomology, UC Davis.

Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program

The Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program (EPDRP) is funded through a Special Research Grant provided through USDA-CSREES. In its third year, EPDRP has approved $1.26 million in funding for 13 new projects. This brings the number of projects sponsored by the program to 42, for almost $3.7 million.

The annual research workshop sponsored by the Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program was held at UC Riverside, October 8 and 9, 2003. Investigators of 29 funded research projects reported on their progress and answered questions from attendees representing universities, state and federal agencies, and the public. Invited presentations from USDA and CDFA scientists highlighted exotic species challenges and research needs, and rapid response planning for invasive species.

Over the past year, the program also co-sponsored the Fruit Fly Symposium #7, the Red Imported Fire Ant Conference, and the 4th Workshop on Transgenesis and Genomics of Invertebrate Organisms.

Established in 2001, the Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program is a joint program of the UC Riverside Center for Invasive Species Research and UC IPM. The program, which targets research on exotic pests and diseases/invasive species important to California, aims not only at improving our knowledge of pests that have already arrived in California, but also at getting a head start on some of those that pose a likely threat to the state. Additional funds are being sought to extend the program and if successful the EPDRP will request new proposals in late winter 2004.

Timothy Paine, UC Riverside Entomologist, is the new director of the UC Riverside Center for Invasive Species Research. In addition to developing the Center’s research and outreach efforts, he will work closely with UC IPM Director Rick Roush in leading the Exotic/Invasive Pests and Diseases Research Program.

For more information about the program and the projects it sponsors, see the research grants programs section of the UC IPM Web site.


New research funded for 2003 - 2006

Agricultural Systems

Identification of the parasitoid fauna associated with California sharpshooters and host specificity testing of exotic mymarid parasitoids released for classical biological control of glassy-winged sharpshooter. M. S. Hoddle, Entomology, UC Riverside. (3 years, $146,429)

Control of curly top virus using trap crops and repellents against the vector, beet leafhopper. G. P. Walker, Entomology, UC Riverside. (2 years, $138,997)

Development of mimetic insecticidal peptides for glassy-winged sharpshooter control. B. Federici, Entomology, UC Riverside. (1 year, $72,500)

Evaluation of the role of arthropods in the persistence and dispersal of exotic Newcastle disease (END) in Southern California. A. C. Gerry, Entomology, UC Riverside; C. J. Cardona, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis (3 years, $173,855)

Using population structure to identify effective parasitoid biotypes for biological control of mealy plum aphid, Hyalopterus pruni, in California. N. J. Mills, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley (3 years, $93,238)

Origins, thresholds, and management of the tomato psyllid in California. J. Trumble, Entomology, UC Riverside; R. Stouthamer, Entomology, UC Riverside. (3 years, $109,779)

Functional use of geographic information systems to model the range and abundance of vine mealybug and its natural enemies. A. P. Gutierrez, Ecosystem Science, UC Berkeley; K. M. Daane, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley. (2 years, $66,500)

Release and evaluation of parasitoids for the biological control of the olive fruit fly. C. Pickett, Biological Control Program, CDFA. (1 year, $16,026)

Natural Systems

Controlling establishing infestations of herbaceous perennials in the Lake Tahoe Basin. M. Renz, New Mexico State University; W. E. Frost, UC Coop. Ext. El Dorado Co. (3 years, $28,788)

Genetic and reproductive factors contributing to the invasiveness of Cortaderia jubata and C. elloana in California. M. A. Jasieniuk, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis; J. M. DiTomaso, Vegetable Crops, UC Davis. (3 years, $116,950)

Sabellid polychaete detection in native gastropod populations and control at abalone culture facilities. E. Grosholz, Environmental Science and Policy, UC Davis; J. Moore, School of Veterinary Medicine, Medicine and Epidemiology, UC Davis. (2 years, $88,387)

Disease progression plot monitoring and plotless evaluation of Phytophthora ramorum incidence in different forest types in coastal California. R. B. Standiford, Center of Forestry, UC Berkeley. N. M. Kelly, Ecosystem Science, UC Berkeley. (3 years, $144,720)

Urban Systems

Quantifying the risk of pitch canker to susceptible pines in California. T. R. Gordon, Plant Pathology, UC Davis. (3 years, $65,012


Research funded for 2002 - 2005

Elucidating mechanisms underlying the suppressiveness of composted organic yard waste towards pupating avocado thrips, Scirtothrips perseae, in avocado orchards. M. S. Hoddle, Entomology, UC Riverside; M. Brownbridge, Entomology, University of Vermont; P. De Ley, Entomology, UC Riverside.

Probiotics and bacteriotherapy to improve mass rearing of Mediterranean fruit flies and performance of SIT male medflies. C. R. Lauzon, Biological Sciences, California State University, Hayward.

The alimentary tract of glassy-winged sharpshooter as a target for control of Pierce’s disease. B. Federici, Entomology, UC Riverside.

Determining the area of origin of avocado thrips using molecular techniques. R. Stouthamer, Entomology, UC Riverside; M. S. Hoddle, Entomology, UC Riverside.

Studies on flight behavior of red imported fire ants. L. Greenberg, Entomology, UC Riverside

Predicting and controlling building infestations of the pest ant, Linepithema humile, by urban landscaping. P. Nonacs, Ecology and Evolution, UC Los Angeles; J. H. Klotz, Entomology, UC Riverside

Updating integrated pest management systems for pitch canker: Known and potential insect vectors. D. L. Wood, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley

Impacts and control of an invasive seaweed in California marine protected areas. J. H. R. Goddard, Marine Science Institute, UC Santa Barbara; C. A. Blanchette, Marine Science Institute, UC Santa Barbara.

Managing the impacts of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) in coastal estuaries. E. Grosholz, Environmental Science and Policy, UC Davis

Impacts and control of giant reed, Arundo donax, in riparian habitats. J. S. Holt, Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside

Intensive grazing practices and revegetation for controlling medusahead in California grasslands. E. A. Laca, Agronomy and Range Science, UC Davis; M. R. George, Agronomy and Range Science, UC Davis.

Biological control of the spotted gum psyllid, Eucalytolyma maidenii: A new pest on urban eucalyptus. T. D. Paine, Entomology, UC Riverside

Genetic selection and behavior modification to circumvent differential susceptibility of eucalyptus longhorned borers to attack by the egg parasitoid, Avetianella longoi. J. G. Millar, Entomology, UC Riverside; T. D. Paine, Entomology, UC Riverside

Distribution and control of an exotic pest wasp, the German yellowjacket (Vespula germanica), in southern California. P. K. Visscher, Entomology, UC Riverside


Research funded for 2001 - 2004

Characterization of California and Australian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. M. Davis, Plant Pathology, UC Davis

Management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.). E. E. Grafton-Cardwell, Entomology, UC Riverside; J. E. Pena, Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida; R. F. Luck, Entomology, UC Riverside; C. W. McCoy, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida; K.E. Godfrey, CDFA, Biocontrol Program

Management of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, by augmentative releases of parasites and ant control. J. Klotz, Entomology, UC Riverside; C. Gispert, UC Coop. Ext. Riverside Co.

Resistance of alfalfa against silverleaf whitefly: Breeding and mechanisms of resistance. G. Walker, Entomology, UC Riverside; L. Teuber, Agronomy and Range Science, UC Davis

Cape ivy distribution, ecology, and reproductive biology. J. DiTomaso, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis

Integrated management of medusahead and other noxious annual grasses and restoration of degraded grassland to desirable species. J. DiTomaso, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis

Ecological approaches for management of artichoke thistle (Cynara cardunculus) spread. J. Holt, Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside

Effects of invasive woody plant species in California: A nascent protocol for an impact assessment. M. Rejmanek, Evolution and Ecology, UC Davis; C. E. Elmore, Vegetable Crops/Weed Science, UC Davis

Spatial distribution and host associations of Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death in California. D. Rizzo, Plant Pathology, UC Davis; M. Garbelotto, Environmental Science, Policy and Management, UC Berkeley

Reproductive biology and populations genetics of fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum Forskal), an invasive species in California. J. Waines, Botany and Plant Sciences, UC Riverside

Impacts and mangement of roof rats (Rattus rattus) in riparian areas in California. D. Whisson, Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, UC Davis; A. Engilis, Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology, UC Davis

Threshold temperature and thermal time requirement for life cycle of the sting nematode. J. O. Becker, Nematology, UC Riverside

The impacts of pitch canker on susceptible pines in California. T. Gordon, Plant Pathology, UC Davis; D. Wood, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley.

Integration of tactics for management of invasive insect pests: Adaptations for an expanding community of pests and natural enemies in the urban forest. T. D. Paine, Entomology, UC Riverside; J. G. Millar, Entomology, UC Riverside

Biology and ecology of Psyllaephagus spp. parasitic on the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimlecombei Moore. K. Daane, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley; D. Dahlsten, Insect Biology, UC Berkeley

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